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Exhibit A: news paper article about how poor loved him. Exhibit B: grafitti on tomb + coins? . Exhibit C: Plutarch. Exhibit D: Autopsy report. Exhibit F: audio recordings from play (Cassius focus). Exhibit E: Burzstajn videos. Exhibit H: bodyguard testimony. Exhibit G: various warnings.

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slide1

Exhibit A: news paper article about how poor loved him

Exhibit B: grafitti on tomb + coins?

Exhibit C: Plutarch

Exhibit D: Autopsy report

Exhibit F: audio recordings from play (Cassius focus)

Exhibit E: Burzstajn videos

Exhibit H: bodyguard testimony

Exhibit G: various warnings

Exhibit J: updated will? [not done]

Exhibit I: Testimony from generals (Antony could mention will update to prove he had no motive)? [not done]

slide2

Exhibit A: news paper article about how poor loved him

  • Which group loved Caesar?
  • What two reasons did they love him?
  • Why might this upset the senators?
  • Exhibit B: grafitti on tomb + coins?
  • What did the coins say on them?
  • Why might Brutus have felt pressured to stop Caesar?
  • What does “SERVO RES PUBLICA” mean?
  • Exhibit D: Autopsy report
  • What does the autopsy tell us about the number and skill of the attackers?
  • How many attackers do you think there were? Why?
  • Exhibit C: Page from Caesar by Plutarch
  • What did Caesar do that insulted the senators?
  • What excuse did he give?
  • What does Plutarch say about the excuse?
slide3

Exhibit F: audio recordings from play (Cassius focus)

  • Why does Cassius believe Caesar is no better than him?
  • Does Cassius seem angry enough to murder Caesar? Why or why not?
  • Exhibit E: Burzstajn videos
  • What does Dr. Burzstajn think about the note in Caesar’s hand?
  • Why does Dr. Burzstajn think Caesar may have wanted to die this way?
  • Exhibit H: Testimony of Tyrannus, Caesar’s Bodyguard
  • Why does Tyrannus think Caesar fired him?
  • What did Tyrannus hear from the other guard?
  • Exhibit G: Various Warnings
  • If you had received these same warnings what would you do?
  • Do these warnings seem believable to you? Why or why not?
slide4

COLD CASE FILES

CRIME REPORT

16 March, 44 BC

On March 15, 44 B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar died of multiple puncture wounds to the chest. There were many witnesses to the attack but few concrete details could be worked out. We know there were many attackers but all fled the scene. Caesar’s final words are reported to have been “and you, my child?” and were apparently directed at Senator Marcus Brutus who is confirmed to have joined in on the attack but did not make the first strike. Brutus, shortly after the assault, is reported to have said “This is what happens to tyrants.”

The exact motivation and number of attackers is still unknown. Some have speculated the Senate believed Caesar was destroying the Republic, while some argue they were simply jealous of him. Others claim that Caesar himself allowed the plot to take place to ensure his legacy.

This case remains unsolved.

slide5

THE ROMAN RECORD THURSDAY, NOV. 17, 43 BC

CAESAR OUR HERO

FOR SALE

Licinius Gaxus

Rome Correspondant

ROME-A recent poll put Julius Caesar’s approval rating among the lower class at an incredible 82%. Analysis of the poll shows two main reasons why the people love him so much.

First, unsurprisingly, is that Caesar gave many in the lower class money after a recent war. Senator Cassius remarked “This is an obvious case of bribery. He wants their support so he paid them off.” His arguments clearly did not matter to the lower class.

One lightly used chariot. Never used in battle. Only used for light training. Don’t miss out on this chance to join in on the latest craze.

Contact Jacinus Tacitus for pricing information and for further details.

Secondly, Caesar’s incredible war record over the barbarians has brought peace and safety that Rome hasn’t seen in decades. “Without the attacks we can finally work in peace” said one local merchant.

Cont.on B-4

ANNUAL GAMESCALLED SUCCESS

Socratian Pompus

Sports Desk

In a surprise, the winner of this year’s gladiatorial games was none other than disgraced former general Commodus. Commodus shocked his opponents with incredible sword skills and a desire to win unmatched in the arena. “I had something to prove” Commodus later said. “I did not want to be remember as the great general who was but the fighter who is.”

slide6

Despite Caesar's popularity among the poor many in Rome did not want a return to rule by one man. Caesar made coins with his image with the words “dictator for life” printed on them. No living leader had ever been put on a Roman coin. Many felt he this action proved he planned to one day rule as king.

Roman legend says that 600 years before Caesar a distant ancestor of Senator Brutus (a close friend of Caesar’s) killed off Rome’s last king leading to the beginning of the republic. This legend was still on the mind’s of the people as Caesar rose in power. This man’s tomb was covered with graffiti as well but not praising Caesar. Instead, this graffiti demanded that Brutus follow his ancestor and kill Caesar. The Latin phrase “SERVO RES PUBLICA” (Save the republic) was carved into the walls of the tomb in multiple places as seen above. It appears many people, not just a few jealous senators, wanted Caesar removed from power.

slide7

HE MOST OPEN AND DEADLY HATRED towards him was produced by his passion for the royal power. For the multitude this was a first cause of hatred, and for those who had long smothered their hate, a most specious pretext for

it. Yet as Caesar was coming down from Alba into the city they ventured to hail him as king. But at this the people were confounded, and Caesar, disturbed in mind, said that his name was not King, but Caesar, and seeing that his words produced an universal silence, he passed on with no very cheerful or contented looks.  Moreover, after extravagant honors had been voted him in the senate he did not rise to receive them, but as if he were dealing with mere private persons, replied that his honors needed to be shrunken rather than enlarged. This upset not only the senate, but also the people, who felt that not just the senators but the state was insulted, and in a terrible sadness they went away at once. Caesar, when he was aware of his mistake, immediately turned to go home, and drawing back his toga from his neck, cried in loud tones to his friends that he was ready to offer his throat to anyone who wished to kill him.

But afterwards he made his disease an excuse for his behavior, saying that the senses of those who are thus afflicted do not usually remain steady when they address a multitude standing, but are speedily shaken and whirled about, bringing on giddiness and insensibility. However, what he said was not true; on the contrary, he was very desirous of rising to receive the senate; but one of his friends, as they say, or rather one of his flatterers, Cornelius Balbus, restrained him, saying: "Remember that thou art Caesar, and permit thyself to be courted as a superior."

slide8

ιο ανοιχτή και θανατηφόραμίσος απέναντί του έχει παραχθεί από το πάθος του για τη βασιλική εξουσία. Για την πληθώρα αυτή ήταν μια πρώτη αιτία του μίσους, αλλά και για όσους είχαν πνιγμένα καιρό το μίσος τους, μια πιο τρελά

για αυτό. Ωστόσο, ως Καίσαρας ερχόταν κάτω από το στην πόλη που τόλμησε να φωνάξει αυτόν ως βασιλιά. Αλλά σε αυτό τον λαό ήταν κατέρριψε, και Καίσαρα, διαταραχές στο μυαλό, δήλωσε ότι το όνομά του δεν ήταν βασιλιάς, αλλά Καίσαρα, και βλέποντας ότι τα λόγια του, εκπόνησε μια καθολική σιωπή, πέρασε σχετικά με όχι πολύ χαρούμενα ή ευχαριστημένος βλέμματα. Επιπλέον, μετά από εξωφρενικές τιμές του είχε ψηφίσει η γερουσία δεν είχε δημιουργήσει για την υποδοχή τους, αλλά σαν να επρόκειτο για απλή ιδιώτες, απάντησε ότι τιμά του έπρεπε να συρρικνωμένο και όχι διευρυμένη. Αυτό όχι μόνο επίμαχο ζήτημα της Συγκλήτου, αλλά και οι άνθρωποι, οι οποίοι θεώρησαν ότι δεν είναι μόνο οι γερουσιαστές, αλλά η κατάσταση ήταν προσβεβλημένος, και μια τρομερή κατήφεια πήγαν μακριά ταυτόχρονα, όλους εκείνους που δεν ήταν υποχρεωμένοι να παραμείνουν, ότι Καίσαρα πάρα πολύ, όταν ήταν ενήμερη για το λάθος του, αμέσως στράφηκαν για να πάει στο σπίτι, καθώς και την κατάρτιση πλάτη τήβεννος του από το λαιμό του, φώναξε δυνατά σε τόνους στους φίλους του ότι ήταν έτοιμος να προσφέρει το λαιμό του σε όποιον ήθελε να τον σκοτώσει. Αλλά στη συνέχεια έκανε την ασθένειά του μια δικαιολογία για τη συμπεριφορά του, λέγοντας ότι οι αισθήσεις όσων είναι ως εκ τούτου πλήττονται συνήθως δεν παραμένουν σταθερές, όταν η διεύθυνση μιας μόνιμης πλήθος, αλλά γρήγορα ανακινείται και περιστρεφόμενων περίπου, φέρνοντας σε ίλιγγος και αναισθησία. Ωστόσο, αυτό που είπε δεν ήταν αλήθεια? Αντιθέτως, ήταν πολύ επιθυμώντας να αυξάνεται για να λαμβάνετε τις γερουσία? Αλλά ένας από τους φίλους του, όπως λένε, ή μάλλον ένας από τους κόλακες του, Κορνήλιος Balbus, τον συγκρατημένη, λέγοντας: " Να θυμάστε ότι εσύ τέχνη Καίσαρα, και να επιτρέψουν σεαυτον να φλερτάρει ως ανώτερο. "

slide9

Office of the Medical Examiner

XXII Romulus Road

Rome, Roman Republic

REPORT OF INVESTIGATION BY THE MEDICAL EXAMINER

NAME: Gaius Julius Caesar SEX: male AGE: 55

x

sudden

CAUSE OF DEATH:

(mark one only)

violent

suicide

suspicious, unusual or unnatural

Investigating Agency: FBI (unsolved crimes division)

Figure 1 shows a mapping of the 23 puncture wounds found on the body of the victim in what I believe is the order of infliction. The random placement of the wounds indicates many attackers crowded around the victim. Of the 23 wounds only wound two would have been fatal as it punctured the victim’s heart. This indicates the attackers were likely not experienced.

Multiple wounds to the back indicate multiple attackers surrounding the victim for a simultaneous attack. It may also indicate that some wounds were inflicted while the victim lay on the ground.

The victim would have died quickly but not instantly. It is very possible he could have gotten off a few last words before death.

Figure 1

PROBABLE CAUSE OF DEATH MANNER OF DEATH

x

suicide

natural

homicide

Blood loss from a direct puncture wound to the heart.

unknown

accident

I hereby declare that after receiving notice of the death described above I took possession of the body and made inquiries regarding the cause of death in accordance with Section 28-654038.

Date: ______________ Signature: ___________________

slide10

Transcript of secret recording of Senator Cassius

3 January, 44 B.C.

[Cassius first explains his argument is about honor. Some in Rome have claimed Caesar to be a god and Cassius finds this insulting as he feels he is just as good a man as Caesar.]

Well, honor is the subject of my story. I cannot tell what you and other men think of this life; but, for my single self, I had as lief not be as live to be in awe of such a thing as I myself. I was born free as Caesar; so were you: we both have fed as well, and we can both endure the winter's cold as well as he.

[Cassius will now describe an event which he feels proves Caesar’s humanity by showing he was once saved by Cassius.]

For once, upon a raw and gusty day, the troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, Caesar said to me 'darest thou, Cassius, now leap in with me into this angry flood, and swim to yonder point?' Upon the word, accoutered as I was, I plunged in and bade him follow; so indeed he did. The torrent roared, and we did buffet it with lusty sinews, throwing it aside and stemming it with hearts of controversy; but ere we could arrive the point proposed, Caesar cried 'Help me, Cassius, or I sink!' I, as Aeneas, our great ancestor, did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tiber did I the tired Caesar.

[Cassius continues his frustration, clearly angry about Caesar’s status as a living god and his own, powerless, status. He gives another example of Caesar’s weakness here.]

And this man is now become a god, and Cassius is a wretched creature and must bend his body, if Caesar carelessly but nod on him. He had a fever when he was in Spain, and when the fit was on him, I did mark how he did shake: 'tis true, this god did shake; his coward lips did from their color fly, and that same eye whose bend doth awe the world did lose his luster. I did hear him groan: ay, and that tongue of his that bade the Romans mark him and write his speeches in their books, alas, it cried 'Give me some drink, Titinius,' as a sick girl.

[After a number of insults Cassius makes his final statement that he is shocked Caesar has been given this power.]

Ye gods, it doth amaze me a man of such a feeble temper should so get the start of the majestic world and bear the palm alone.

slide11

Caesar was warned repeatedly about a possible attack. He in fact delayed his visit to the Senate many times because of it. Here are two of the warnings.

Warning from Calpurnia, Caesar’s Wife

“My Lord! You must not go to the senate house today. I have had a terrible nightmare! In it you were lying dead on the floor. Please, I beg of you, stay home.”

Warning from Spurina, Fortune-Teller

“The oracles tell of blood on this day, the Ides of March. Caesar, you must be careful.”

He ignored them and went. That very day he was given a note giving specific details about the attack.

Note found in Caesar’s Hand after the Assassination

slide12

AO94 – Statement of Defense

Court of Rome

Republic of Rome vs. Senator Cassius

Case Number: 12

Witness statement given by Tyrannus, one of Caesar’s bodyguards

“Three days before the assassination Caesar fired me along with all of his other bodyguards. He told us he would be traveling on his own. We insisted that he keep us around to protect him. I don’t know what he was thinking. Maybe he was beginning to believe that he truly was a god and nobody could hurt him anyway or maybe he was just simply tired of being followed all the time. This was especially strange based on the threats that we heard from Cassius.

One of the other guards told me he heard Caesar say that he didn’t want to live any more because of his sickness. I don’t know if this is true or not but either way it seems very odd. For days he had delayed his visit to the Senate due to all the warnings. And yet, a mere three days before he does go he gives up his protection?”

SWORN TO before me this 18th day of March, 44 B.C.

Marcelus Cicero

Roman District Judge

indictment
Indictment

Now that you have seen all the evidence write an indictment.

Did the senators do the right thing by assassinating Caesar?

vocabulary
Vocabulary

Tyrant – a ruler who has total power and acts brutally

Republic – A government ruled by a group of officials like the United States.

Dictator – a ruler appointed by the senate with total power in emergency