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Memory Consolidation. PSY 506A 11.4.11 Molly Bisbee. A Summary. Overview. Definition Standard model MTT Differences Evidence. General Definition. A process after initial encoding that is critical to stable long-term memory Stabilizes memories Incorporates new information with old.

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Memory consolidation

Memory Consolidation

PSY 506A

11.4.11

Molly Bisbee

A Summary


Overview
Overview

  • Definition

  • Standard model

  • MTT

  • Differences

  • Evidence


General definition
General Definition

  • A process after initial encoding that is critical to stable long-term memory

    • Stabilizes memories

    • Incorporates new information with old


Temporal characteristics
Temporal Characteristics

  • Cellular or synaptic consolidation

    • Brief process lasting seconds or minutes

      • Initial emphasis

  • Systems consolidation

    • Lasts weeks, months, or years

      • Recent emphasis



The standard model stm
The Standard Model (STM)

  • dispersed neocortical sites linked together by hippocampal complex, where ensemble trace is rapidly created (via LTP or the like)

    • H-trace, or “index”, “binds” the dispersed C-traces, allowing dispersed cortical sites to be reactivated together

      • over time, C-traces link directly; intervention of H-trace no longer needed, it fades away

        • information content is the same whether or not H-trace is involved in retrieval

        • Hippocampus plays same role in episodic and semantic memory



Stm problems
STM Problems

  • Length of consolidation period

  • Dissociations among episodic and semantic memory

  • Reconsolidation


Multiple trace theory
Multiple Trace Theory

  • H always involved in storage and retrieval of episodic memory

  • The H-C combination is the episode memory trace

  • H represents contextual component of episode

  • each re-activation/retrieval of a memory occurs in different context and results in altered trace; expanded or strengthened H trace and H-C links

  • episodic and semantic memory must be considered separately


Memory consolidation
MTT

  • Different from Standard Theory

  • the H-C complex is the episode memory trace; H serves not only to bind elements in C, but also as the repository of critical episodic components

  • each re-activation of a memory occurs in a different context and results in a new sparse, distributed trace in H

  • each such trace shares some of the C representations

Similar to Standard Theory

  • hippocampus automatically encodes all attended information

  • H- traces are sparsely encoded in distributed representations

  • these ensembles act as pointers to the cortical ensembles storing attended information

MTT asserts that H and C are both always involved in the storage and retrieval of episodic memory, and that episodic and semantic memory must be considered separately.


Mtt implications
MTT Implications

  • Aging episodic memories either forgotten or benefit from formation of stronger, expanded, memory traces

  • HC active during retrieval of episode memories of any age

  • HC preferentially active in processing spatial/contextual material

  • H plays different role in episodic and semantic memory

  • Partial HC damage affects memories proportional to age/strength; complete HC lesions will yield flat gradient of RA for episodic, but not semantic memories

  • Remote memories in amnesics should be generic in nature

  • Older memories will have stronger, more distributed, traces in H

  • Reactivating a memory should lead to updating and reconsolidation


Hc active during retrieval of episode memories of any age

HC active during retrieval of recent episode memories

HC active during retrieval of episode memories of any age

vs.

The evidence?


Older memories will have stronger more distributed traces in h

Remote events

Foci of left hippocampal activations across subjects

Recentevents

Older memories will have weaker, less distributed, (or nonexistent) traces in H

Older memories will have stronger, more distributed, traces in H

vs.

The evidence?

Older memories are represented more diffusely within hippocampus


Reactivating a memory should lead to updating and reconsolidation
Reactivating a memory should lead to updating and reconsolidation

Reactivating a memory should not affect it

vs.

The evidence?


Reactivating a memory should increase h involvement
Reactivating a memory should increase H involvement reconsolidation

Recent 2 > Recent 1, p < 0.05

Remote 2 > Remote 1, p < 0.05

Repeated retrievals increase activation in hippocampus – equivalently for recent and remote memories

L post HC

L post HC

R phg

R phg

Reactivating a memory should reduce H involvement

vs.

The evidence?


Reactivation
Reactivation reconsolidation

Memories can be reactivated either online (during wake) or offline (during sleep)