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Industrial Training Institute - Vyara. C.O.E. Module B.B.B.T : 5 Power Generation , Transmission and Distribution ( Duration : 8 week.). Introduction of energy.

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Industrial Training Institute - Vyara

C.O.E.

Module B.B.B.T : 5

Power Generation , Transmission and Distribution

( Duration : 8 week.)


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Introduction of energy.

  • Generation of electrical energy.

  • Importance of electrical energy.

  • Types of energy.


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Introduction of Electricity.

Important data of an Atom

ELECTRONE

PROTON

NEUTRONE


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Source of electricity

  • Alternator.

  • D.C. Generator

  • Battery.

  • Thermocouple.


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Source of energy.

  • The various type energy source.

  • Fuels.

  • Energy storage of water.

  • Nuclear energy.

  • Wind energy.

  • Tidal energy.

  • Solar energy.

  • Geothermal energy.

  • Thermo electric power.


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Power Generation system.

  • Thermal Power Generation system.

  • Hydro electric Power Generation system.

  • Nuclear Power Generation system.

  • Diesel Power Generation system.

  • Non conventional energy power Generation system.


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Major Thermal power station in Gujarat state.

  • Place Number of Unit. Total capacity

  • Dhuvaran 4×63.5 588 MW

    2×140.0

    2×27 ( Gas Turbine)

    2.Vanakbori. 6×210 1260 MW.

    3.Utran. 13×3 39 MW.

    4.Ghandhinager. 2×120 450 MW.

    1×210

    5.Shikka. 1×120 120 MW.


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Major Thermal power station in Gujarat state.

  • Place Number of Unit. Total capacity

  • Ukai. 2×120 850 MW

    2×200

    1×210

    2.Ahemedabad. 4×9 410MW.

    (Torrent power) 1×20

    1×24

    3×110

    Panedhro . 1×70 70 MW.


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Major Hydro & nuclear power station in Gujrat state

  • Types of power Name of Total

    capacity.

    Station place. In MW.

  • Hydro power Kdana 60 MW

    station.

    Ukai 305 MW

  • Nuclear power Kakrapar 125 MW

    station.




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Mechanical equipment in Thermal power station.

BOILER

SUPER HEATER

ECONOMISER

AIR PREHEATER

TURBINE

CONDENSER



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Working diagram Thermal power station.

Working diagram of thermal power station.





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Classification of Hydro electric power station.

  • Classification on head.

  • High head plant ( < 300 m.)

  • Medium head plant. (60m to 300 m.)

  • Low head plant. ( > 60m.)

  • Classification on water condition

  • Flaw of water plant.

  • Storage of water plant.

  • Pump storage water plant.

  • Classification on operation.

  • Manual plant.

  • Automatic plant.

  • Classification on type of load.

  • Base load plant.

  • Peak load plant.


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Element of Hydro power station,

  • Reservoir.

  • Catchments area.

  • Dam.

  • (a) Earthen dam.

  • (b) Masonry dam.

  • (c) Concrete dam.

  • Spill ways.

  • Screen.

  • Fore bay or Intake.

  • Tunnel.

  • Penstock or pipe line.

  • Surge tower.

  • Draft tube.

  • Tail race.

  • Fish passes.

  • Turbine.


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Different type schemes of Hydro power plant.

1.High head schemes.

2.Medium head schemes.

3.Low head schemes.


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Different type of turbine use in hydro power station

1.High head schemes. (Impulse turbine-pelton wheel)

2.Medium head schemes. (reaction turbine )

3.Low head schemes. (propeller turbine )



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Hydro electric power plant.`

Construction of Turbine.

Inlet

outlet

Impulse turbine for High head plant.




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Hydro electric power plant.`

Propeller turbine for low head plant.













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Advantage of Hydro power station.

  • The plant is simple in construction,rubust and required low maintenance.

  • It can be put in the service instantly.

  • It can respond to changing loads without any difficulty.

  • There are no stand by losses.

  • The running charges are very small.

  • No fuels is burnt.

  • The plant is quite neat and clean.

  • The water after running the turbine can be used for irrigation and other purpose.


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Disadvantage of Hydro power station.

  • The capital cost of generators, civil engineering work etc.

  • High cost of transmission lines.

  • Long dry seasons may effect the delivery of power.


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Selection of site for Hydro electric power station.

  • sufficient quantity of water at a reasonable head should be available.

  • The site should allow for strong foundations with minimum cost.

  • There should be no possibility of future source of leakage of water.

  • The selected site should be accessible easily.

  • There should be possibility of stream diversion during construction period.

  • The reservoir to be constructed should have large catchments area, so that the water in it should never full below the minimum level.



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Generation of heat in nuclear power reactor.

Nuclear power station.

NUCLEAR FUSION

NUCLEAR FISSION


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Fuels used in Reactor.

Nuclear power station.

URENIUM U235

URENIUM U233

PLUTONIUM

Pu 239


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Nuclear power station.

Types of nuclear reactor.

BOILING WATER

REACTOR

PRESURISED

WATER REACTOR

HEAVY WATER

COOLED REACTOR

GAS COOLED

REACTOR

FAST BRIDER

REACTOR


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Nuclear power station.

Main element of nuclear reactor.

CORE

MODERATOR

CONTROL

RODS

REFLECTOR

COOLANT

SHIELD


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Nuclear power station.

Pressurized water nuclear reactor.








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Use of Solar energy .

Photovoltaic conservation system.

SOLARCOLLECTOR

& WATCHES

BATTERY CHARGING

COMMUNICATIN

NAVIGATION,RAIL

WAY, SIGNAL, ETC.

SOLAR TUBE LIGHT

TV,ETC.

DOMESTIC ELCT,

APPLIANCES.

FOR SPACE CRAFT

ELECTRICITY.


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Use of solar energy.

  • Direct method.

  • Photovoltaic conservation.

  • Thermal conservation.

  • Solar water heating.

  • Solar air heating.

  • Solar drying.

  • Solar pumping.

  • Solar furnace.

  • Solar space heating.


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Use of solar energy.

  • Indirect method.

  • Wind energy.

  • Tidal energy.

  • Biomass energy.

  • Geothermal energy.

  • Photosynthesis energy.

  • Hydraulic energy.





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Wind power energy.

  • Application of wind mill.

  • For water pumping.

  • For producing electric power.

  • For running flour mill.

  • As stand by energy source.

  • For running domestic appliances & lighting.

  • For battery charging.

  • Combining with solar generation system to supply additional power.







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Types of transmission line

  • A.C. transmission line.

  • A.C. three phase three wire system.

  • A.C. three phase four wire system.

  • A.C. single phase two wire system.

  • Mid point earth type A.C.single phase two wire system.

  • D.C. transmission line.

  • D.C. two wire system.

  • Mid point earth type D.C. two wire system.



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Element of transmission system.

  • Step –up transformer.

  • Line support.

  • Line insulator.

  • Conductor.

  • Step-down transformer.

  • Protective device.

  • Regulator.




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Transmission and Distribution supply system.

Generating station.

Transmission system

Step-up x’mer

Receiving station.

Distribution system.



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Main components of over head line.

Conductor.

Line support.

Line insulator.

Earth wire.


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Characteristic of conductor materials.

  • High conductivity.

  • High tensile strength.

  • Low specific gravity.

  • Low cost.

  • Long working life.

  • Should not be brittle.


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Characteristic of line support .

  • Low weight.

  • High mechanical strength.

  • High accessibility.

  • Low cost.

  • Long working life.







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Type of insulator use in power system.

  • Pin type insulator.

  • Suspension type insulator.

  • Strain type insulator.

  • Shackle type insulator.

  • Egg or Stay insulator.




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Factor affecting in corona losses.

  • Condition of the corona effect.

  • Potential difference is two conductor.


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Method use in reducing corona losses.

*Use of bundle

Conductor.

*Increase of conductor

Diameter.


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Factor affecting sag.

  • Weight of conductor.

  • Span between two poles.

  • Working tensile strength.

  • Ice- coating.

  • Wind pressure.

  • Tem pressure.






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Classification cable.

  • Low voltage (L.T) cable. Operating voltage up to 1 KV.

  • High voltage (H.T.) cable. operating voltage up to 11 KV.

  • Super tension (S.T.) cable. Operating voltage up to 33 KV.

  • H-type cable.

  • S.L. type cable.

  • H.S.L. type cable.

  • Extra high tension (E.H.T.) cable.opertaing voltage up to 66 KV.

  • Extra super tension voltage cable. Operting voltage up to 132 KV.



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UNDER GROUND CABLE

Core

Belted paper

Lead sheath

Bedding

Single wire armoring

Overall Serving


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Types of Cable.

  • Oil filled cables.

    (A) Single core oil filled cables used up to 132 KV.

    (B) Three core oil filled cables used up to 66 KV.

  • Gas pressure cables.

    (A) External pressure cables.

    (B) Internal pressure cable.

    (a) High pressure gas filled cable.

    (b) Gas cushion cable.

    (c) Impregnated pressure cable


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Various type insulating materials in used in cable.

  • Rubber.

  • Vulcanized India rubber. (V.I.R.).

  • Impregnated paper.

  • Varnished cambric.

  • Polyvinyl chloride.

  • Silk and cotton.

  • Enamel insulation.


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Properties of insulating materials for cable.

  • High resitivity.

  • High dielectric strength.

  • Low thermal co-efficient.

  • Low water absorption.

  • Low permittivity.

  • Non – inflammable.

  • Chemical stability.

  • High mechanical strength.

  • High viscosity at impregnation temperature.

  • Capability to with stand high rupturing voltage.

  • High tensile strength and plasticity.



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Fault which are likely to occurs in cable.

  • Insulating fail between line and earth.

  • Insulating fail between two core.

  • Open circuit fault.



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Function of Substation.

  • The main functions of sub-station are to receive energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating station, reduce to a value appropriate for local distribution and provide facilities for switching.




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The main equipment for Substation.

  • Main bus-bar.

  • Isolator.

  • Insulator.

  • Circuit breaker.

  • Load interrupter switches.

  • Fuses.

  • Power transformer.

  • Current transformer and potential transformer.

  • Control cable.










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Types of switch gear equipment.

  • Circuit breaker.

  • Bus-bar.

  • Fuses.

  • Protective relay.


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Various type of bus-bar arrangement.

  • Single bus bar system used in D.C. and A.C. power station.

  • Single bus bar system with sectionalisation.

  • Ring bus bar system.

  • Duplicate bus bar system.


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Types of faults in distribution power system.

  • Over current.

  • Under voltage.

  • Unbalance voltage.

  • Reversed power.

  • Surges.



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Function of protective relay.

  • The relay are used to cut off the power supply, promptly to any element of power system which undergoes short –circuit it starts operating abnormally.


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Main feature of a good protective Relays.

  • Selectivity.

  • Sensitivity.

  • Reliability.

  • Quickness.

  • Non- interference with future extension.


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Types of relays.

  • Solenoid relay.

  • Attracted armature type relay.

  • Electrodynamics type.

  • Moving type relay.

  • Induction type relay.

  • Thermal relay.

  • Over current relay.

  • Over voltage relay.







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Method of arc extinction in circuit breaker.

  • High resistance interruption.

    (1) Arc lengthening.

    (2) Arc cooling.

    (3) Arc splitting.

    (4) Arc constraining.

  • Low resistance interruption.

    (1) Cooling.

    (2) Gap lengthening.

    (3) Blast effect.


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Types of circuit breaker.

  • Low voltage air circuit breaker.

  • Oil circuit breaker.

  • Air blast circuit breaker.

  • SF6 circuit breaker.

  • Vacuum circuit breaker.




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Types of material used in Fuse element.

  • Rewireable fuse.

  • Cartridge type fuse.

  • Drop out fuse.

  • High capacity H.R.C. fuse.

  • High voltage H.R.C. fuse.





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Types of Transformer.

  • Power transformer.

  • Auto transformer.

  • Transformer for Feeding installation with static converters.

  • Testing transformer.

  • Power transformer for special application.





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Various type losses in Transformer

  • It’s a mineral oil obtained by refine crude petroleum. It serves the following purpose.

  • Provide additional insulation.

  • Carries away the heat generated in the core & coils .

  • Protects the paper from dirt & moisture.


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