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Chapter Eight, Lesson Three: China and the Larger World

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  1. Chapter Eight, Lesson Three: China and the Larger World

  2. The Mongols in China • Question: What are some important events in the Mongol conquering of China? • 1234: Northern China is conquered • 1260: Kublai Khan becomes ruler of the Mongols. • 1279: Kublai Khan finally conquers the Song Dynasty and becomes the first to rule all of China.

  3. The Mongols in China • Question: How did Kublai Khan use some Chinese traditions to improve his rule? • Rebuilt the capital city of Beijing in the Chinese fashion. • Declared himself emperor • Founded his own dynasty…the Yuan Dynasty.

  4. The Mongols in China • Question: Did Kublai Khan and the Mongols differ from other northern conquerors? • Kept Chinese government traditions, but only to strengthen the government. • Important government positions were held by non-Chinese.

  5. The Mongols in China • Question: Did Kublai Khan and the Mongols differ from other northern conquerors? • Kept Chinese government traditions, but only to strengthen the government. • Important government positions were held by non-Chinese.

  6. The Mongols in China • Question: How was Chinese culture interrupted by the Mongols? • Millions of Chinese people died from war and disease. • Much of the wealth of the Tang and Song Dynasties vanished. • Cities and farmlands were destroyed • Farmers lost their land and civil servants lost their jobs.

  7. The Mongols in China • Question: How did the Mongols strengthen China’s link to the rest of the world? • Caravans crossed the Mongol Empire from China to the Middle East. • Merchants, missionaries, and diplomats from all over gathered in China’s cities. • Ideas, such as gunpowder and printing, made their way from China to the Middle East and, eventually, into Europe.

  8. The Ming Dynasty • Question: How did the Yuan Dynasty end? • The Chinese rebelled against the Mongols and drove them out in 1368. • They started a new dynasty, the Ming Dynasty. • First ruler was Emperor Taizu

  9. The Ming Dynasty • Question: What traditions did Emperor Taizu use to restore his empire? • Reestablished civil service exams and encouraged scholars • Public works projects to repair the damage the Mongols did. Also rebuilt the Great Wall.

  10. The Ming Dynasty • Question: What positive things did Emperor Taizu do for his people? • Gave land to homeless people. • Seized large estates and broke them up. • Abolished slavery • Raised taxes on the rich.

  11. The Ming Dynasty • Question: what is a “despot” and how was Emperor Taizu an example of that? • Despot: someone who holds absolute power and abuses it. • Made decisions in secret • Created a secret police force. • Accused 100,000 people of corruption or treason and executed them.

  12. The Ming Dynasty • Question: What was the purpose of Zheng He’s voyages? • To show the power of the Chinese navy and establish trade routes. • Sailed to the Middle East and Africa.

  13. The Ming Dynasty • Question: What is the “Imperial City”? • New capital in the city of Beijing. • Entire area was enclosed by walls. • The “Forbidden City” is the center of the Imperial City and holds the palaces for the Emperor.

  14. The Ming Dynasty • Question: What were some effects of Europeans reaching China? • Missionaries brought Christianity to China • New goods such as sweet potatoes, corn, beef and dairy cows. • Increased gold and silver.

  15. The Qing Dynasty • Question: How were the Manchus take over China and how were they similar to the Mongols? • While the Ming armies were fighting rebellions in the South, the Manchus invaded from the north and defeated the weakened Ming. • They were both nomadic people from the north. • Both kept the important jobs of government for themselves.

  16. The Qing Dynasty • Question: How did the Qing rulers encourage learning? • Assigned scholars to edit Chinese works • Printing allowed for more publishing • 1726…sponsored a famous encyclopedia of 5020 volumes.

  17. The Qing Dynasty • Question: why did China’s size increase so quickly under the Qing Dynasty? • 60 million in 1400, 180 million in 1580, 430 million by 1850. • Increased food production. • China’s territory increased.

  18. Big Ideas…Lesson Three • The Ming and the Qing Dynasties • The Ming Dynasty drove out the Mongols and ended the Yuan Dynasty. • Ming rulers were all-powerful. • Ming Dynasty limited trade with Europe. • The Manchu people began the Qing Dynasty. • China’s population increases rapidly and its territory increases. • Limited trade with other people. • Although the Mongols interrupted Chinese culture, they strengthened China’s connection to the rest of the world. • Camel caravans travelled from China to central Asia and on to the Middle East. • Important port cities were found in China were trade occurred. • Ideas also spread from China to Europe during the Mongol period.