Polish kermes lives in the roots of Scleranthusperennis L. Polish kermes are found from eastern Germany to the Ukraine . This shield louse, or scale insect, is a parasite on the roots of Scleranthusperennis. The female insects are collected in June, killed in a vinegar solution, dried, and marketed in this form as the raw material for the dyestuff. From a single plant, 40 to 50 insects can be collected. After they are taken from the roots of the host plant, it is replanted.
The Cochineal bug is found in desert locations in Arizona, New Mexico, and California to Montana, Colorado, Texas, Florida and North Carolina. They feed on the juices of the cacti plant, especially the prickly pear cacti.
Cinnabar (natural mineral)
Pb3O4, or 2PbO·PbO2
Face Centered Cubic (fcc) view
Cubic Unit Cell