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Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology

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Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology. Tuesday February 24, 2009 Person Perception (cont’d) & Attribution Theory. IV. How are Impressions of Others Formed?. A. Importance of positive and negative evaluations B. Models of integrating information 1. Averaging model

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slide1

Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology

Tuesday February 24, 2009

Person Perception (cont’d) &

Attribution Theory

iv how are impressions of others formed
IV. How are Impressions of Others Formed?

A. Importance of positive and negative evaluations

B. Models of integrating information

1. Averaging model

2. Additive model

3. Weighted average model

C. The importance of first impressions

1. Primacy effect

2. Recency effect

3. Self-fulfilling prophecy

slide3

How would we obtain an overall assessment of our new roommate?

  • Friendly +8
  • Good listener +5
  • Financially responsible +9
    • Additive Model: +22
    • Averaging Model: +7.3

Next, we incorporate a new piece of information:

  • Intelligent +3
    • Additive Model: +25
    • Averaging Model: 6.25
  • In the additive model, any new piece of positive information improves our overall assessment. In the averaging model a weak, positive piece of new information might lower our overall assessment.
what kind of football season did ru have in 2008
What kind of football season did RU have in 2008?
  • Fresno State L 24-7
  • UNC L 44-12
  • Navy L 23-21
  • Morgan State W 38-0
  • WVU L 24-17
  • Cincinnati L 13-10
  • UConn W 12-10
  • Pittsburgh W 54-34
  • Syracuse W 35-17
  • USF W 49-16
  • Army W 30-3
  • Louisville W 63-14
  • NC State W 29-23
slide5

V. Implications for Policy and Practice

  • Medicine
  • Law enforcement
    • Controversies over Amadou Diallo (2002); Sean Bell (2006)
  • Education
  • Media coverage of political and social issues
i attribution theory
I. Attribution Theory
  • What is It?

1. Naïve scientist

B. Dispositional vs. Situational Attributions

1. Subtractive Rule

C. Covariation Principle (Kelley)

1. Three sources of behavior

a. Actor

b. Object

c. Context

c kelly covariation cont d
C. Kelly Covariation (cont’d)

2. Sources of information for making attribution

a. Consensus

b. Consistency

c. Distinctiveness

3. Examples

kelley s cube e g mcarthur 1972
Kelley’s Cube (e.g., McArthur, 1972)

Is Joe the Comedian funny? Is Mary easily amused? Or is tonight a special event?

d sources of bias in making attributions
D. Sources of Bias in Making Attributions

1. Correspondence bias (Jones 1979)

a. Explanations

2. Actor-observer effect (“You fell, I was pushed”)

a. Explanations

3. Self-serving bias (“I’m good, you’re lucky”)

a. Explanations

e attributions for success and failure
E. Attributions for Success and Failure

1. Dimensions

a. Locus of control

b. Stability

2. Combinations

a. Internal/stable = Ability (your ability at logic & reasoning)

b. Internal/unstable = Effort (how many hours you studied the LSAT guide)

c. External/stable = Task difficulty (how difficult the test is)

d. External/unstable = Luck

attributions for success and failure
Attributions for Success and Failure

Source: Weiner et al., 1972

f consequences of success failure attributions
F. Consequences of Success & Failure Attributions
  • Such attributions may affect subsequent achievement behaviors and motivation; future achievement expectancies; persistence at similar tasks; pride or shame felt following success or failure.

a. Optimistic attribution style. Negative outcomes attributed external, unstable and specific causes; and positive outcomes to internal, stable, global causes.

b. Pessimistic attribution style. Negative outcomes attributed to internal, stable, and global forces. (I’m a bad person); positive events in terms of external, unstable, and specific causes.