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Warm-Up . Imagine you are the first president of the United States. Write 3-4 sentences on the problems you might face in a new government. What needs to be done? (Security, financial, political, etc). The Early Republic (1789 – 1823). The U.S. Constitution.

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Warm up

  • Imagine you are the first president of the United States. Write 3-4 sentences on the problems you might face in a new government. What needs to be done? (Security, financial, political, etc)

The u s constitution
The U.S. Constitution

Approved by committee on Sept 17th, 1787

Ratified by the states in Sept 13th, 1788 (needed 9 of 13 states)

Goes into effect on March 4th, 1789

The presidency what is it
The Presidency – What is it??

Chief of State – chief public representative of the nation

Commander-in-Chief – leads the Armed Forces

Chief Legislator – recommends new laws to Congress

Chief Diplomat – both a national spokesman and world leader

Chief Executive – sees that laws are faithfully executed

The presidential seal
The Presidential Seal

What does the Seal mean?

What do you think the different parts of the symbols represent?

E. Pluribus Unum = Out of many, one

50 Stars = 50 States

Talons hold olive branches for peace and arrows for war. Head looks towards olive branches showing President always looking for peace but ready for war.

Shield has alternating red and white stripes representing the original 13 states with a blue band on top signifying unity, one nation.

The President’s Coat of Arms represents the military strength of the United States

1 george washington 1789 1797
1. George Washington (1789-1797)

  • Elected unanimously in 1788 by the Electoral College

  • Serves only 2 terms (sets precedent (tradition)

  • Elected to second term in 1792

  • Congress paid president $25,000/year but he declined it due to “selfless image” and wealth

  • Preferred to be formally called “Mr. President” (another precedent he sets)

  • Great administrator and judge of talent and character

  • Sets precedent of creating a “cabinet” (group of advisors) to help him reach gov’t decisions

George washington 1789 1797
George Washington (1789-1797)

Interesting Facts:

Was 6’ 2” tall and about 200 lbs

After years of toothaches, had all but one of his teeth pulled at age 57

Did not have wooden teeth, fake dentures made from carved animal bones and actual teeth from slaves (which he paid for)

Married Martha Custis at age 26 and never had any children of his own (Martha had two children from previous marriage)

Great dancer and horseman

Only Founding Father who ran a distillery

Presidential challenges
Presidential Challenges

Maintain national security

Create a stable economic system (paying debts)

Build a military

Set up a court system

Define the central gov’ts authority

Washington s cabinet
Washington’s Cabinet

Secretary of the Treasury

Alexander Hamilton


Jacob Lew


Treasury Department

(Deals with national financial matters)

Washington s cabinet1
Washington’s Cabinet

Secretary of the State

John Kerry


Thomas Jefferson


State Department

(Handles relations with other nations/foreign affairs)

Washington s cabinet2
Washington’s Cabinet

Secretary of the War/Defense

Henry Knox


Chuck Hagel


War/Defense Department

(Provides for the nation’s defense)

Washington s cabinet3
Washington’s Cabinet

Attorney General

Edmund Randolph


Eric Holder Jr.


Justice Department

(President’s legal advisor and enforces national laws)


  • Does the Constitution include and explain how a President’s “Cabinet” should be formed?

Interpretations of the constitution
Interpretations of the Constitution

  • “Necessary and Proper Clause”: expands the powers of the Constitution to fit a working government

  • Strict Constructionist: believe that government ONLY has powers specified by Constitution

  • Loose Constructionist: want to use the elastic clause for what they think is “necessary and proper”

Economic policies
Economic Policies

Secretary of Treasury

Secretary of State

  • Alexander Hamilton

  • For a central, national bank, national currency

  • For tax whiskey and luxury items

  • Thomas Jefferson

  • Against a national bank, thought it was unconstitutional

  • Against taxes thought unfair to farmers

Economic policies1
Economic Policies

Secretary of Treasury

Secretary of State

  • For protective tariffs (taxes) to protect U.S. manufacturers. Taxes imports (goods from other countries)

  • Against protective tariffs…thought it would hurt farmers and increase cost of goods

Alexander Hamilton’s Financial


Jefferson’s argument and opposition to Hamilton’s plan

Leads to the creation of Political Parties in the nation

Political parties
Political Parties

  • Federalist Party

  • Leader: Alexander Hamilton

  • Priorities: Manufacturering, strong federal gov’t (loose interpretation of the Constitution), favored Britain as trading partner

  • Democratic-Republicans

  • Leader: Thomas Jefferson

  • Priorities: Agriculture, strong state gov’ts (strict interpretation of the Constitution), favored France (revolutionary ally) as trading partner

Washington s foreign policies actions
Washington’s Foreign Policies & Actions

  • Neutrality Proclamation – U.S. would stay neutral in other nation’s wars

  • Signed Jay’s Treaty – dodged war and promoted trade with Britain

  • Farewell Address – warned against political parties and getting involved other countries problems (foreign affairs).


How were political parties formed? From what argument? How do political parties affect us today? Be specific and write a 4-5 sentence paragraph.

2 john adams 1787 1801
2. John Adams (1787-1801)

  • Considered a “Founding Father” of our nation

  • Strong supporter of the Independence movement before and after the American Revolution

  • Helped write the Declaration of Independence

  • Was the first Vice-President under Washington and second President of the U.S.

  • Was a lawyer and farmer from Massachusetts

  • Only serves one term as President after losing to Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1800

2 john adams 1787 18011
2. John Adams (1787-1801)

Interesting Facts:

  • One of only two father-son Presidents in U.S. History (George H. W. and George W. Bush)

  • Signer of the Declaration of Independence

  • Had a fiery temper and loved to argue

  • Defended the British soldiers accused of murder in the “Boston Massacre”

  • Had an extremely close relationship with wife Abigail

  • Dies on July 4th, 1826, on the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence

John adams presidency
John Adams’ Presidency

  • Adams continues Washington’s policy of “neutrality” which angers the French

  • The French begin to “seize” U.S. ships on the high seas

  • The U.S. has many French supporters who want the U.S. to help them in the war against Britain

  • Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President, is one of them

Xyz affair
XYZ Affair

  • Adams sends diplomats to France to try and negotiate peace

  • French agents say France would only talk if U.S. Pays them $10 million and a bribe to the French minister of $250,000

  • Americans very angrily refuse

  • Congress allows U.S. Ships to seize French ships and begins building an army

Alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Adams becomes a target of bad political press from Democratic-Republicans.

  • Many new immigrants are Democratic-Republicans

  • Adams passes the Alien and the Sedition Acts to try and silence Democratic-Republican and immigrant newspapers

  • Targeted aliens (immigrants)

  • Extended wait time to become a citizen from5 to 14 years

  • Allowed President to order aliens out of country

  • Made saying or writing anything false or harmful about the government illegal (sedition)

  • The issue of State’s Rights will continue until Civil War

Election of 1800
Election of 1800

  • Adams (Federalist) loses to Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)

  • Adams was able to keep U.S. out of war and strengthened the Navy

  • Adams was the first president to live in the Executive (White House) Mansion in Washington, D.C., and first to leave it


3 thomas jefferson 1801 1809
3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)

  • Wrote the Declaration of Independence

  • Secretary of State under Washington and Vice-President under Adams

  • Leader of the Democratic-Republican Party

  • Was a “Strict Constructionist”

  • From Virginia, lived at Monticello

  • Wife Martha, dies in 1782 and never remarries

  • Wins two terms as President

3 thomas jefferson 1801 18091
3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)

Interesting Facts:

  • Owned thousands of books

  • Helped create the Bill of Rights for the U.S. Constitution

  • Designed and began the University of Virginia

  • Was governor of Virginia twice

  • Designed his own house Monticello and continuously made improvements

  • Had 12 children and was a great-grandfather at the time of his death

  • Died on July 4th, 1826, on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Died about 4 hours before John Adams.

Views on government
Views on Government

  • “When the people fear the government, there is tyranny. When the government fears the people, there is liberty.”

  • “My reading of history convinces me that most bad government results from too much government.”

  • “The policy of the American government is to leave their citizens free, neither restraining nor aiding them in their pursuits.”