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MBS Grad Student Biosafety Orientation. Lorraine A. McConnell WSU Biosafety Manager 509-335-4462 [email protected] September 3, 2008 http://www.bio-safety.wsu.edu/biosafety/. Outline. Introduction Biosafety Levels Practices Facilities Biosafety Cabinet Case Study Resources

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mbs grad student biosafety orientation

MBS Grad Student BiosafetyOrientation

Lorraine A. McConnell

WSU Biosafety Manager

509-335-4462

[email protected]

September 3, 2008

http://www.bio-safety.wsu.edu/biosafety/

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Biosafety Levels
    • Practices
    • Facilities
  • Biosafety Cabinet
  • Case Study
  • Resources
  • Regulations
biosafety introduction
Biosafety Introduction

Practicing Science Safely Means That Before Any Activity...

YOU KNOW the risks

YOU KNOW the worst things that could happen

YOU KNOW what to do if they should happen

YOU KNOW AND USE the prudent practices, protective facilities, and protective equipment needed to mitigate the risks

biosafety levels know the risks
Biosafety Levels – Know the Risks
  • BSL 1: Material not known to consistently cause disease in healthy adults.
  • BSL 2: Associated with human disease. Hazard is from percutaneous injury, ingestion, or mucous membrane exposure. Some agents with environmental or agricultural impact.
  • BSL 3: Indigenous or exotic agents with potential for aerosol transmission; disease may have serious or lethal consequences.
  • BSL 4: Dangerous/exotic agents which pose a high risk of life-threatening disease, aerosol-transmitted lab infections or related agents with unknown risk of transmission
appropriate biosafety level
Appropriate Biosafety Level

Agent Risk Group + Risk Assessment =

Appropriate Biosafety Level

Agent Risk Group Resource:

http://www.absa.org/riskgroups/index.html

Risk Group Examples:

RG-1

E. coli (standard host vector systems)

Most plant pathogens

e.g., Aschochyta spp.

Adenovirus type 1-4, most human cell lines

RG-2

Shigella, Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli O157, Human Adenovirus, Candida spp. Giardia lamblia, Some human cell lines HEK-293 HeLa (characterized agents)

RG-3

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, Coccidioides immitis, HIV, R. richettsii

a complete risk assessment includes
Agent Characterization (Risk Group RG)

Personnel Factors (experience)

Work Activity Factors

Environmental Factors

Equipment Factors

Risk Consequences

Probability Profile

A Complete Risk Assessment includes
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • Risk of Activity – same agent can have different containment levels:
    • Procedures that produce aerosols have higher risk
    • Procedures using needles or other sharps have higher risk
    • Handling blood, serum or tissue samples may have lower risk
    • Purified cultures or cell concentrates may have higher risk
    • Large volumes (>10 L) have higher risk
know what to do
Know What to Do
  • What Constitutes a Biological Exposure Risk?
  • What to do When There has Been a Potential Exposure?
  • How to Clean up a Biological Spill?
  • When Should you Seek Assistance With a Spill Clean up?
what constitutes a biological exposure risk
What Constitutes a Biological Exposure Risk?
  • Breach in Primary or Secondary Containment
      • What is Primary Containment?
      • What is Secondary Containment?

What to do when there is a breach?

Tell your supervisor and the Biosafety Manager for WSU. Fill out an incident report, and all other paper work as required.

What to do when there is a near miss?

Fill out an incident report.

primary containment
Primary Containment
  • Lab practices – standard lab practice, limited access, biohazard warning sign, sharps/needle precautions, SOPs, decontamination, waste.
  • Safety equipment – biosafety cabinets (BSC), sharps containers, sealed rotors.
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) – lab coat, gloves, goggles, respirators.
slide14
Practices/Equipment

PPE

Risk Assessment

Immunization

Surveillance

secondary containment facilities
Secondary Containment - Facilities
  • Facility provides containment through traditional construction BSL-1 & BSL-2
    • Best practices HVAC provides negative pressure in BSL-2 labs. Depending on risk assessment this may be required.
  • Facility provides containment through special design features BSL-3
    • Anterooms
    • Double doors
    • Alarmed redundant HVAC systems
possible biological release scenarios
Possible Biological Release Scenarios

Is This a Release?

Is This a Release?

BSL-3 potentially aerosolizing work performed in uncertified BSC.

Transfer liquid cultures with a transfer pipette to produce BSL-2 organism serial dilutions. Work performed at the open bench.

  • Open a centrifuged tube at the open bench that contains a BSL-2 organism.
  • Using a wire transfer loop and a bunsen burner pick a Campylobacter colony and streak for isolation work in the BSC.
spill clean up of biological agents surface contamination
Spill Clean up of Biological AgentsSurface Contamination:
  • Alert co-workers
  • Define/isolate contaminated area
  • Put on appropriate PPE (personal protective equip.) to include gloves, lab coat and face shield (if appropriate)
  • Remove/glass/glass shards with forceps or scoop
  • Apply absorbent towels to spill – Do NOT apply disinfectant directly to the spill as this may aerosolize the agent
  • Apply disinfectant to towel surface
  • Allow adequate contact time (generally 10-60 minutes)
  • Remove towels, mop up; clean with alcohol or soap/water or other agent as appropriate.
  • Dispose of materials in biohazardous waste
  • Notify lab instructor
spill in a bsc
Spill in a BSC
  • If the spill of an infectious agent was enough to create puddles or liquid in the drain pan then the following procedure should be followed:
    • a. Leave the cabinet running and close the view screen for about 5 minutes. This will allow aerosols to settle before starting cleanup.
    • b. The drain pan should be flooded with appropriate disinfectant. Leave the disinfectant in the pan for required contact time, longer if the spill involved a high organic load and 10% bleach is used. The disinfectant then needs to be drained out and the surfaces thoroughly cleaned with water to prevent corrosion.
spill clean up of biological agents personal exposure
Spill Clean up of Biological AgentsPersonal Exposure:
  • Clean exposed surface with soap/water,

(1 minute), eyewash (eyes) 15-20 min.,

or rinse mouth 3x’s with water

  • Apply first aid and treat as an emergency
  • Notify lab instructor – fill out incident report and other forms as requested
  • If appropriate report to medical clinic for treatment/counseling
major spills
Major Spills
  • This is a spill of a potentially biohazardous material that will take more than 30 minutes to clean up (not including the agent deactivation period of 10-60 minutes depending on the biological agent and disinfectant in use)

Call 911 for assistance

slide23
Practical Disinfectants for use in Recombinant DNA ResearchNE=Not Effective, b=variable results dependent on virusReference: NIH Guidelines for working with Recombinant DNA Lab Safety Monograph (Appendix D updated)
know and use
Know and Use
  • prudent practices,
  • protective facilities, and
  • protective equipment

needed to mitigate risks

bsl 3 special requirements
Appropriate Containment

Risk [email protected]

Primary Containment -Practices

All Waste decontaminated

Facility must have autoclave

Decontamination of all reusable lab clothing, (coats) before laundering

Security (controlled access)*

Select Agent (if applicable)*

Base line serum (as appropriate)

Primary containment –Equip. &PPE

BSC*- Or other physical barriersFor all open manipulations of agents

PPE –Respiratory protection as required

Sealed rotors/safety buckets (as needed)

Emergencies

Emergency Response Plans* must be posted in the lab

Secondary Containment

Physical separation

Negative pressure – Exhausted air not re-circulated, 10-12 air changes per hour

Double access doors

Enclosures for aerosol generating equipment

Room penetration seals

Walls floor and ceiling are water resistant for easy cleaning

Vacuum lines protected with HEPA filters and may require additional disinfectant traps as per risk assessment.

Tertiary Barriers

Lab Structure & Ventilation

Biosafety Manual must be developed that is specific to the risks of the agent and the work [email protected]*

BSL-3 Special Requirements
biosafety cabinet
Biosafety Cabinet
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance / Certification
    • Decontamination
what is a biosafety cabinet
What is a Biosafety Cabinet?
  • A BSC is a piece of equipment that is only as good as the users understanding of how to appropriately use and maintain it
  • There are different Classes of BSC’s
    • Class I – user protection but no product protection
    • Class II – product, user and environment protection
      • Provides a ~100ft/min protective air barrier
    • Class III- Air tight - use with Risk Group 3/4 agents
  • Fume hoods and laminar flow clean work benches are NOT Biosafety Cabinets.
outline31
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance / Certification
    • Decontamination
understand equipment limitations
Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Fume Hoods
      • Not for use with infectious materials or environmentally dangerous organisms
      • Exhaust air not HEPA filtered; not easily decontaminated
  • Laminar Clean Air
    • Horizontal
      • Air blows through HEPA at rear of work surface across work surface and into face of user
      • NOT for use with lab animals, potentially infectious materials, drug formulations.
  • Vertical
    • Air blows through HEPA on top of work surface downward
    • Air may flow under a sash and into the room. Some models don’t even have sashes
    • Turbulence can distribute aerosols into user’s breathing zone
    • Not for use with potentially infectious materials
  • Reverse-flow
    • Pull air from front of cabinet through pre-filter and HEPA at rear
    • Used to reduce user’s exposure to animal urine, dander etc. (with PPE)
    • Not for work with biohazards (no containment)
understand equipment limitations33
Understand Equipment Limitations
  • BSC class I
    • Inward airflow protects worker
    • Exhaust to outside w/wo HEPA filter
    • No product protection
    • Not for use with tissue culture
  • BSC class II
    • “Sterile” work surface
    • Protects worker, product and environment
    • For use with RG 2-3 agents
    • Restrictions for flammables and chemicals depending on type of class II BSC
understand equipment limitations34
Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Class II BSC
    • Type A2 – 30% exhausted to the room
      • Not recommended for hard ducting or chemical usage
    • All Type B cabinets – air flow from the rear grill is discharged into the exhaust system so activities that may generate chemical vapors should be conducted towards the rear of the BSC
    • Type B3 – 30% exhausted to outside
      • Minute chemical usage allowed
    • Type B1 – 70% exhausted to outside
      • Minute amount of volatile chemicals allowed
    • Type B2 – 100% exhausted to outside
      • Small amount of volatile chemicals allowed
      • Not a good choice for tissue culture work
outline35
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance / Certification
    • Decontamination
  • Resources
safe use of a biosafety cabinet
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet
  • Must be isolated from other work areas, lab entry, high traffic areas and away from air ducts
  • Must be operated properly to minimize risk (more info later in SOP section)
    • Sash must be kept at manufacturers recommended height while in use with biological agents.
safe use of a biosafety cabinet37
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet
  • Flames are not a constant temperature and therefore can cause air turbulence inside a BSC
    • Compromise protective air barrier integrity
  • Are not spark/fire proof. Gas Bunsen burners should not be used in BSC’s
    • 70% recirculated (Class II type A2) Uncombusted gas (yellow flame) captured in plenums. UV light – microscopic holes in gas tubing. Net result high explosion hazard
safe use of a biosafety cabinet39
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet
  • UV lights
    • Cause skin cancer and cataracts. Therefore eyes and skin should not be exposed.
    • Not reliable as primary decontamination
      • Line of site
      • Poor penetration
      • UV light turns on at 80 micro watts /square cm
      • UV light only kills at 160 micro watts/square cm
    • Secondary decontamination
      • 15 minutes generally sufficient
      • More than 15 minutes eats up plastics and glue in HEPA filter and in long term can destroy BSC integrity and cause cabinet leak test to fail
safe use of a biosafety cabinet40
Do’s

Keep supplies to a minimum and ~6” from sides

Discard all infectious materials inside the BSC (disinfectant)

Understand how the BSC works

Turn the cabinet on for manufacturer recommended time before using it

Inform your supervisor if you are immuno-compromised

Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing

Don’ts

Rely on the UV light to decontaminate

Put anything on the front grill

Move quickly

Use sweeping motions

Keep supplies close to the sides and back

Move the sash below or above the recommended standard

Use a gas flame in the hood

Remove material before disinfecting. When working with potentially infectious material

Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet
safe use of a biosafety cabinet41

Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet

What happens if the front sash is up too high?

safe use of a biosafety cabinet42
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet

1. Question: Front sash up too high

Answer: Down flow of clean (HEPA filtered) air will provide more pressure than inflow of air through the front sash and safety is compromised i.e. agent contamination of the user and environment is likely.

safe use of a biosafety cabinet44
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet
  • Question: Front sash down too low.

Answer: In flow of air through front sash is stronger than down flow of air. Net result is compromised product integrity, i.e. outside air flows into the cabinet providing a source of potential contamination.

safe use of a biosafety cabinet46
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet

3. Question: Effect of objects placed on the front grill.

Answer: The front grill is one of the dirtiest areas of the entire lab so placing items on this grill is not a good idea. Additionally this interferes with air balance and causes too much down flow of air which creates safety issues, i.e. release of agent outside of the cabinet.

safe use of a biosafety cabinet48
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet

4. Question: Arm moves over work area.

Answer: Down flow air moves contaminants on your arm/lab coat down onto the work surface compromising product sterility.

Note: If you are right handed the waste container should be on the right side of the BSC.

safe use of a biosafety cabinet50
Safe Use of a Biosafety Cabinet
  • Question: Person walks behind the Biosafety Cabinet.

Answer: Protective air current is ~100 feet / minute = a little over one mile an hour. People walk at 2-3 miles per hour and this can disrupt the protective air current of the biosafety cabinet.

outline51
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance / Certification
    • Decontamination
  • Resources
when to use a bsc
When to Use a BSC
  • Product Protection
    • Tissue Culture
  • User /Environmental Protection
    • Aerosolizing activities with Risk Group 2 and 3 agents.
aerosol producing activities
Aerosol Producing Activities
  • Sonication, blending, mixing, vortexing
  • Almost any liquid manipulation
  • Centrifuging
  • Pouring
  • Pipetting
  • Opening containers at non-ambient pressures, (e.g. fermenters, freezer vial)
  • Loading syringes and injections
aerosol producing activities cont
Aerosol Producing Activities (cont.)
  • Intranasal inoculation of animals
  • Changing animal bedding
  • Harvesting tissue, eggs
  • Tissue grinder/homogenizers
  • Lasers
  • Cell sorters
  • Necropsy
aerosol control procedures
Aerosol Control Procedures
  • Biosafety Cabinet (BSC) properly maintained, used and certified
  • No blow-out of pipettes
  • Sidewall contact when delivering liquids
  • Use of aerosol-minimizing tips
  • Secondary enclosure for sonicators, etc.
  • Capped centrifuge tubes, sealed cups, carriers and rotors
outline56
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • WhyUse a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance / Certification
    • Decontamination
  • Resources
why use a bsc user protection
Why Use a BSC? – User Protection

Account for 50% of LAI’s (Lab Acquired Infections)

  • Inhalation exposure to infectious aerosols

Account for 20% of LAI’s

  • Parenteral Inoculation (to include animal bites and scratches)
  • Spills, splashes, skin and mucous membrane exposure
  • Ingestion
outline58
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance / Certification
    • Decontamination
  • Resources
bsc standard operating procedure
BSCStandard Operating Procedure

Start up Procedure

Start up Procedure

Verify air flow

Verify drain valve is closed

Disinfect cabinet surfaces

Place all materials inside the cabinet (disinfect as appropriate)

Verify view screen height is appropriate

  • Pre-plan to minimize supplies and movements in and out of the cabinet
  • Turn on for manufacturer’s recommended time prior to use
  • Ensure that back grill paper catch is clear
bsc standard operating procedure60
BSCStandard Operating Procedure

Work in the Cabinet

Work in the Cabinet

Place pipettes exposed to infectious materials in disinfectant inside the cabinet before removing

Safe work area is 6 inches from sides of cabinet

Enclose all potentially contaminated material & disinfect surfaces before removing from BSC

Disinfect work surfaces

  • Wash hands and arms
  • Do NOT cover the front or back grill with anything
  • Use slow movements
  • Avoid door and people movement beside cabinet
  • Avoid open flames
standard operation procedure bsc
Standard Operation Procedure - BSC
  • Develop from Manufacturer’s guidelines
  • Baker SOP available in BSL-2 Biosafety Manual Template (supplemental resource D)
    • http://www.bio-safety.wsu.edu/forms.asp
outline62
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Certification
  • Resources
bsc certification
BSC Certification

Certification

Certification

Check air-flows

100-110 ft/min in-flow (A2)

75 ft/min in-flow (A1)

65-75 ft/min down-flow

Check HEPA filter

Particle generator* – 18-20 lbs pressure to produce 0.3 micron particle size (99.9% efficiency test)

  • Must be certified every year / after installation / and after the BSC is moved
  • NSF certifier to provide certification to NSF standards requires
    • 2 HP compressor
    • *Pump designed for aerosol challenge
outline64
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • BSC Maintenance
  • Resources
bsc maintenance
BSC Maintenance

Maintenance

Maintenance

Don’t store materials in the hood

Verify that the front grill/back grill and paper catch are unobstructed

Once a month disinfect the bottom of the hood and then drain

>10-12 year old BSC’s - stop stocking parts

  • Keep the cabinet clean
  • If cabinet is off keep front sash down to minimize dust
  • Clean up spills that get under the cabinet immediately http://www.bio-safety.wsu.edu/biosafety/
  • Disinfect before & after use
  • Bleach pits stainless steel
  • Monitor minihelic gauge
outline66
Outline
  • What is a Biosafety Cabinet (BSC)?
  • Understand Equipment Limitations
  • Safe Use of a BSC
    • Why & When to Use a BSC
  • SOP for BSC
  • Decontamination
  • Resources
decontamination
Decontamination
  • Microorganisms can be grouped in terms of resistance to disinfectants.

Highly Susceptible

Susceptible

Resistant

Highly Resistant

Extremely Resistant

microbial chemical resistance
Microbial Chemical Resistance

Highly Susceptible Mycoplasmas

SusceptibleGram +&- bacteria

Fungal Spores

ResistantNon-Enveloped Viruses

Mycobacteria

Highly Resistant Bacterial Endospores

Protozoal Oocytes

Extremely Resistant Prions

effectiveness of chemical disinfectants
Effectiveness of Chemical Disinfectants

Effectiveness is influenced by:

Composition of chemical disinfectants

Concentration of microorganisms and chemical disinfectants

Contact time with the Disinfectant

Presence of organic matter

Presence of interfering substances

Temperature at which they are used

case study putting it all together
Case Study – Putting it all Together
  • Work with M. bovis.
    • rDNA
    • M. bovis culture
  • Agent Risk Group http://www.absa.org/riskgroups/bacteriasearch.php?genus=Mycobacterium
  • Risk Assessment
  • Appropriate BSL
  • Special Considerations
slide72
Practicing Science Safely Means That Before Any Activity...

YOU KNOW the risks

MSDS

YOU KNOW the worst things that could happen

Sick/Die

YOU KNOW AND USE the prudent practices, protective facilities, and protective equipment needed to mitigate the risks

Risk Assessment

YOU KNOW what to do

Follow BSM

a complete risk assessment includes73
Agent Characterization (Risk Group RG)

Personnel Factors (experience)

Work Activity Factors

Environmental Factors

Equipment Factors

Risk Consequences

Probability Profile

A Complete Risk Assessment includes
a agent characterization
A- Agent Characterization
  • Pathogenicity of material –disease incidence and severity
  • Routes of Transmission –parenteral, airborne or ingestion
  • Agent Stability –ease of decontamination
  • Infectious Dose –LD50
  • Concentration –infectious material/volume & working volume
  • Origin of material - Wild Type, exotic, primary cells
  • Availability of effective prophylaxis –Hepatitis B vaccine
  • Medical surveillance – effectiveness & availability of treatment
a agent characterization75
A- Agent Characterization
  • Pathogenicity of material –4th most common LAI, MDR strain used increases the risk.
  • Routes of Transmission –parenteral, airborne & ingestion
  • Agent Stability –Resistant to many disinfectants
  • Infectious Dose –10 bacilli by inhalation
  • Concentration –cultures grown on plates
  • Origin of material - Wild Type
  • Availability of effective prophylaxis –INH (Isoniazid) available, ineffective for most MDR strains
  • Medical surveillance – treatment of MDR Mycobacterium problematic
b personnel factors
B - Personnel Factors
  • Biosafety training
  • SOP training
  • Health Assessment (immunosuppressed)
  • Experience with the Agent (B, I, A)
    • Beginner, Intermediate, Advanced
  • MSDS read
  • Experience with the procedures (B,I,A)
  • Use of PPE training
  • Job hazard analysis undertaken
  • Allergies (animal, environmental)
c work activity factors
Aerosol generating potential

Potential for self-inoculation (needle stick, lesion)

Sample origin and concentration

Volume of pathogen used

Animal use (types, potential viral shedding, bites and scratches)

Replication competency

Recombinants

Cell line characteristics

Toxin production (y/n, MSDS))

Modification of pathogen (y/n, result / implication)

Vector use (y/n, describe)

Inventory Records

Contingency plan (exposure, accidental releases / spills)

Techniques – cryogenics, cytometry

Disinfectant used as directed

C- Work Activity Factors
d environmental factors
D – Environmental Factors
  • Level of containment available
  • Degree of monitoring of containment factors
  • Impact of external activities
  • Biosecurity (access and inventory control)
  • Availability and status of emergency support
  • Housekeeping and Trades Personnel
  • Access by public
e equipment factors
E – Equipment Factors
  • Equipment Maintenance (frequency, status)
  • Manual
  • Reservoirs empty &disinfected
  • Standard Operating Procedures
  • Location of use
  • Ventilation Consideration
resources people
Resources - People
resources
Resources
  • Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm
  • American Biosafety Association: http://www.absa.org/XriskgroupsX/index.html
  • Canadian Biological MSDS’s: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/index.html
  • WSU Biosafety Web Page: http://www.bio-safety.wsu.edu/biosafety
web resources bsc
Web Resources - BSC
  • CDC / NIH Guidelines on Biosafety Cabinets:
    • http://www.ors.od.nih.gov/ds/pubs/bsc/contents.html
  • AIHA – BSC Safety Information:
    • http://www2.umdnj.edu/eohssweb/aiha/accidents/BSC.htm#Biosafety%20Cabinet
  • CDC / NIH 2nd ed. “Primary Containment for Biohazards”:
    • file:///Z:/Biosafety%20Cabinets/CDC-Primary%20Containment%20for%20Biohazards%20(BSC's).htm
  • Ohasis – Office of Health & Safety Primary Containment for Biohazards Section V.
    • file:///Z:/Biosafety%20Cabinets/Primary%20Containment%20for%20Biohazards.htm
web resources bsc86
Web Resources - BSC
  • CDC – Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines 3rd edition:
    • http://209.85.173.104/search?q=cache:h373QUWmYfEJ:www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/lbg-ldmbl-04/pdf/lbg_2004_e.pdf+CDC+2007+3rd+edition+of+Selection+Installation+and+Use+of+BSC&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&client=firefox-a
  • ABSA Position Paper on the Use of Ultraviolet Lights in Biological Safety Cabinets:
    • http://209.85.173.104/search?q=cache:tbuGD9FOadAJ:www.ehs.umass.edu/ABSA%2520UV%2520light%2520paper.pdf+position+paper+on+the+use+of+ultraviolet+lights+in+biological+safety+cabinets&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us&client=firefox-a
web resources bsc87
Web Resources - BSC
  • BMBL Biosafety Cabinet Appendix A (4th ed):
    • http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/b4aa.htm
  • The Baker Company
    • http://www.bakerco.com/resources/intro.php
  • NUAIRE How to select a BSC
    • http://www.nuaire.com/products/biological_safety_cabinets/select_a_bio_cabinet.htm
  • NSF Accreditation Standards
    • http://www.nsf.org/business/biosafety_accreditation/index.asp?program=BiosafetyCabCert
regulations
Regulations
  • OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): http://www.cdc.gov/od/sap/
  • NIH Recombinant DNA Guidelines: http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/rac/guidelines/guidelines.html
  • CDC Interstate Shipment of Etiological Agents: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/shipregs.htm
  • CDC Etiologic Agent Import Permit Program: http://www.cdc.gov/od/eaipp/
  • APHIS – USDA: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ncie/
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