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Tools of Environmental Science. Chapter 2. The Experimental (Scientific) Method. Series of steps that scientists worldwide Observation -the process of obtaining information by using the senses 1. Problem or Question - to be asked

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Presentation Transcript
the experimental scientific method
The Experimental (Scientific) Method
  • Series of steps that scientists worldwide
  • Observation -the process of obtaining information by using the senses
  • 1. Problem or Question - to be asked
  • 2. Hypothesis - a theory or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested
  • Predictions - statements made in advance that express the results that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis if the hypothesis is supported.

Hypothesis must be in If-Then-Because

  • 3. Experiments - procedures carried out under controlled conditions to discover, demonstrate, or test a fact, theory, truth
  • Good Experiments have two things:
    • 1. Variable - factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
    • 2. Control - group in the experiment that serves as a standards of comparison
  • Manipulated (experimental) Variable– one factor that is changed in the experiment
  • Responsive Variable– the resulting change in the experiment
organizing and analyzing data
Organizing and Analyzing Data
  • 4. Data - pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation
  • Graphing the information makes the trends presented in tables easier to see.
drawing conclusions
Drawing Conclusions
  • Analyzing the data and comparing the outcome of their experiments with the hypothesis
  • Claims / Evidence
  • The conclusion must tie into the question, hypothesis and supported with data
repetition and communication
Repetition and Communication
  • Scientists often repeat their experiments
  • Scientists look for a large amount of supporting evidence before they accept a hypothesis.
  • Scientists publish their results
  • Correlation studies are done when experiments are not possible to look at evidence therefore
scientific habits of mind
Scientific Habits of Mind
  • Curiosity
  • Habit of Skepticism
  • Openness to new ideas
  • Intellectual honesty
  • Imagination and Creativity
statistics and models
Statistics and Models
  • Statistics - collection and classification of data in the form of numbers it helps to summarize, characterize, analyze, and compare data
  • Mean– add up data and then divide by the number of individuals
  • Distribution - range

Normal forms bell

Shaped curve

Probability– likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event expressed 0-1 as a decimal
  • Risk is the probability of an unwanted outcome.
  • Models-patterns, plans, representations, or descriptions designed to show the structure, workings of an object, system or concept
  • Various types of models:
    • Physical – 3 D model you can touch (DNA)
    • Graphical – Maps and charts
    • Conceptual – graphics or flow charts
    • Mathematical – uses equations
Decision-making model -conceptual model that provides a systematic process for making decisions
  • Starting point in issues affecting the environments
  • Be sure to consider you values, weigh the pros and cons, and keep in mind both the short-term and long-term consequences of your decision
    • 1. Gather information
    • 2. Consider values
    • 3. Explore consequences
    • 4. Make a decision