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What is a database? • A collection of data that share common attributes, and can be used to match or compare to a submitted item • Databases are searchable on a number of identifying points • Example: Fingerprint characteristis
IAFIS • The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System • Maintained by the FBI • Contains nearly 50 million fingerprint images
Free Fingerprint DB • Verifinger • Can be used to build your own database of prints (limited to 10 prints) • NOT part of the FBI master database
Other Fingerprint DBs • Interpol • Local – by country
Limitations on Keeping Records • Generally, can collect and keep for ALL felonies • Minors may not, depending on the country, be included in that country’s DB • In US, generally have to apply to have fingerprints removed from record if adjudged innocent
FBI DNA Database • Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) • Allows federal, state and local crime labs to exchange and compare DNA profiles. • Collected by state • Felony sexual offenses • Other crimes, depending on state statutes • Can include children
Family Connections • A database may reveal that someone is related to the actual suspect • For example, a brother or another blood relative • The law is not consistent on how it treats the near-matches – are they permitted to use the presence of relatives to search for suspects?
National Integrated Ballistics Information Network • NIBIN • Maintained by Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) • Does NOT match to a definite gun • Provides a list of POSSIBLE choices, that will be verified by a professional examiner to compare with • As of 2007, no crime solved with assistance of ballistics DB
International Forensic Automotive Paint Data Query • PDQ • Contains chemical and color information on automotive paints. • Maintained by RCMP (Mounties) of Canada • Used primarily for hit & run investigation
Shoe Prints • SICAR (Shoeprint Image Capture & Retrieval) • Commercially available database • Solemate
Other Databases • Use the Pearltrees list • Pearltrees
Using Comparisons in Forensic Anthropology • Examine the handout (Which Pelvis is It?) • Work in pairs to determine the gender of each pelvis • Justify your results on paper – 1 submitted per team
Use the Product Rule The above are 3 possible combinations of DNA characteristics that may be found in a genetic profile. Rank from most common to least common.