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Diplomacy & Negotiation. Diplomacy & Negotiation . About diplomacy What do diplomats do? What influences negotiations? Who’s influences foreign policy making? What are the different negotiation settings?. About Diplomacy. About Diplomacy. What is diplomacy?

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diplomacy negotiation1
Diplomacy & Negotiation
  • About diplomacy
  • What do diplomats do?
  • What influences negotiations?
  • Who’s influences foreign policy making?
  • What are the different negotiation settings?
about diplomacy1
About Diplomacy

What is diplomacy?

  • Formal relations between countries
  • Need to be sovereign to engage in diplomacy
    • Recognize with an Embassy

What is the objective of diplomacy?

  • Promote/ preserve state’s national self-interest

When did the modern era of diplomacy begin?

  • Marked by Treaty of Versailles, 1919
about diplomacy2
About Diplomacy

Who is the most important diplomat for a country?

-Head of Government

about diplomacy3
About Diplomacy

Head of Government and Head of State

about diplomacy4
About Diplomacy

Who’s involved in diplomatic affairs?

  • Head of government, head of state--other diplomats?
      • Head representative of a country’s foreign affairs office
    • Ambassadors
    • Civil servants
      • Foreign service officers
what diplomats do1
What Diplomats Do
  • Represent state affairs
    • Must be formally appointed
  • Policy representative
    • Symbolic
    • Substantive
  • Observer and reporter
  • Negotiator
  • Bureaucratic functions
negotiations
Negotiations

What influences negotiations?

2 Main Influences:

1) National power

2) 2-level games

negotiations1
Negotiations

Aspects of National Power

  • Multifaceted
  • Dynamic, not static
  • Hard v. soft
    • Coercive v. persuasive
  • Tangible v. intangible
    • Tanks v. good leadership
  • Relative
    • Regional power
    • Nuclear power
    • Economic power
negotiations2
Negotiations

National Power: State Characteristics

  • Sovereignty
    • Government type, corruption, bureaucratic efficiency, leadership
  • Population
    • Age, health, education, morale, diversity, size
  • Territory
    • Size, climate, terrain, natural resources
  • Resources
    • Factor endowments, industrialization, labor supply
negotiations3
Negotiations

National Power: National Infrastructure

  • Technical structures
    • Roads, airways, railroad tracks
    • Electric grids, telephone lines, fiber-optic cables
    • Waste management, storm drains
    • Hospitals, schools, post offices
    • How many people have access?
  • Transportation
    • Planes, trains, automobiles
  • Information & Communications
    • Radios, TVs, computers, telephones, cell phones, newspapers, addresses
negotiations4
Negotiations

2-Level Games

  • Constrained by both domestic and international factors/ influences
    • One level
      • Between two or more state’s diplomats
    • Another level
      • Between the diplomat and the domestic population
    • Intermestic issues
      • Let’s build a road in Kentucky
  • Both levels affect decisions
negotiations5
Negotiations

Negotiations take place on two levels:

Diplomat with hat

Diplomat

I

One level of negotiations: between diplomats

II

II

One level of negotiations: between diplomat & people

One level of negotiations: between diplomat & people

negotiations6
Negotiations

Example of 2-level game situation: Eurozone crisis

influences
Influences

Who’s involved in policy making?

  • Executive branch
  • Legislative branch
  • Bureaucrats
  • Interest groups
  • Population
  • Media
  • Political opposition
negotiation settings1
Negotiation settings

Different Negotiation Environments

  • Hostile Diplomacy
    • Armed/potential armed
  • Adversarial Diplomacy
    • Little chance of conflict
  • Coalition Diplomacy
    • Cooperation to solve issue
  • Mediation Diplomacy
    • Third party to help in stalemate
diplomacy negotiation2
Diplomacy & Negotiation
  • About diplomacy
  • What do diplomats do?
  • What influences negotiations?
  • Who’s influences foreign policy making?
  • What are the different negotiation settings?