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  1. Preparing Students with Disabilities for College and Careers in the 21st Century Debra Hart, Think College, Institute for Community Inclusion Johnny Collett, Office of Next Generation Learners, Kentucky Department of Education Amy Szymanski, State Support Team Region 1, Ohio (now Regional Education Laboratory, Midwest) Catherine Fowler, National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center OSEP Project Directors Meeting July 15, 2013

  2. Purpose of IDEA To ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free and appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living. IDEA Regulations §300.1(a)

  3. Reauthorizing NCLB/ ESEA • “every student should graduate from high school ready for college and a career, every student should have meaningful opportunities to choose from upon graduation from high school” President Obama in Blueprint for Success, 2010 • The administration has a goal that by 2020, the U.S. will return to having the highest proportion of college graduates in the world

  4. Student Outcomes In 2012, 67% of all high school graduates met the English College Readiness Benchmark (ACT, 2012) 25% of all high school graduates met readiness benchmarks for English, Reading, Math, and Science Full report at

  5. Post-school Engagement of Young Adults Out of High School up to 8 years Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A.-M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D., Wei, X., with Cameto, R., Contreras, E., Ferguson, K., Greene, S., and Schwarting, M. (2011). The Post-High School Outcomes of Young Adults With Disabilities up to 8 Years After High School. A Report From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2011-3005). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. Available at

  6. College Readiness Enter ready to succeed in credit bearing courses Beyond specific academic skills • Key cognitive strategies • Academic knowledge and skills • Academic behaviors • Contextual skills and awareness Conley, 2007

  7. Career Readiness Common Core intends to prepare students for careers that: • Offer competitive, livable salaries above the poverty line • Offer opportunities for career advancement • Are in a growing or sustainable industry Work ready = Meets basic expectations regarding workplace behavior and demeanor (i.e., punctuality, appropriate dress) Job ready = Possesses specific training necessary to begin an entry-level position Career ready = Possesses key content knowledge and key learning skills and techniques sufficient to begin studies in a career pathway CCSSO, 2012 Conley, 2012

  8. Additional Perspectives on CCR • Self-Determination (Kearns et al., 2011) • Conley (2007) components of college readiness expanded to include self-determination • Common Career Technical Core (NASDCTEc, 2012)

  9. Skills/ Attributes/ Behaviors in Growing Industries Non-routine analytical (e.g., problem-solving, math applications) Non-routine interactive (e.g., planning, self-awareness, self-monitoring) Non-routine manual (e.g., physical coordination, agility) Council of Economic Advisors, 2009

  10. In-School Predictors of Post-School Success Test, Mazzotti, et al., 2009

  11. Panel Defining college and career readiness Applying effective practices nationally, state-wide, and at the local level Adopting a philosophy of CCR – and translating it into systems, practices, and procedures Ensuring relevant instruction and transition services

  12. Preparing ALL Students with Disabilities for College and Careers in the 21st Century Debra Hart Think College Institute for Community Inclusion University of Massachusetts, Boston OSEP Project Directors Meeting July 15, 2013

  13. What is purpose of college? Formal purposes Informal purposes Grow intellectually Obtain a degree Prepare for a career Get a good job Live independently Manage finances Balance time Increase responsibilities Expand social network

  14. Increased Access: Good News! College students with disabilities in college: 2.6% in 1978 9% in 2004 (CIRP Freshman Study) 11% in 2004 (NCES, 2006) Most prevalent types of disabilities reported: Students with LD Students with ADHD Students with Psychiatric disabilities Disability types on the rise: Students with Psychiatric Disabilities Students with Asperger’s Syndrome Students with Intellectual Disabilities

  15. Where Do They Enroll? • NELS - 1994 (students with LD only) • 2-year school: 72% • 4-year school: 28% • NLTS-2 - 2009 • 2-year school or program: 32% • Vocational, business, or technical schools: 23% • 4-year colleges or universities: 14%

  16. Where Do They Enroll? (ID) 250 college programs across 37 states 51% 4-year 40% 2-year 10% Trade/Technical School 45% Adult only 26% Dually Enrolled in High School /College 29% Both Groups

  17. Who is ideal college candidate? Academically prepared Strong self-advocate Clear understanding of accommodation needs Financially secure Clear career goals

  18. Who is real college student? • Not academically prepared • 36% of all first year undergrads took remedial course in 2007-2008 • 29% of students at 4-year schools • 41% of students at 2-year schools (Ross et al. NCES, August 2012)

  19. Who is real college student? • Lack self advocacy skills/self-knowledge • Wanting to establish an identity without disability • Belief things were going well • Lack of understanding of accommodation • Needs • Availability • Process • Fear of stigma • See: Lightner et al., 2012; Getzel & Thoma, 2008; Denhart, 2008; Salzer et al., 2008

  20. Who is the real college student? • Has financial need • Most common reason for leaving college – Cost • Males (40%); Females (23%) • Vague or no career goals

  21. Reality Student access to higher education is impacted by Family Expectations

  22. The Power of Expectation • Parent expectations about graduating with a diploma (LD), getting a paid job, and/or attending PSE was associated with student outcomes reflecting those expectations. • Doren, Gau, Lindstrom (2012). The relationship between parent expectations & post-school outcomes of adolescents with disabilities, Exceptional Children, 79, 7-23.

  23. Family Expectations

  24. …Which Usually Is Not Higher Education

  25. Up-to-Date Knowledge of Options • 73% of parents reported lack basic information or guidance on higher education options for students with intellectual disability -Griffin, McMillan, & Hodapp (2010) • Parents hopes vanish when confronted with insufficient information and seemingly impassible barriers for their children’s matriculation into college -Martinez, Conroy, Cerreto, 2012

  26. Parent’s Viewpoint “It would be great if the school system had information for parents on options for these children” “The school system drops the ball with these children”

  27. Strategies for Supporting Families • Family is student’s strongest advocate and support network and will be around long after high school • Shift from parent involvement to a family-centered approach: • Graduation and transition options discussed with student and family. Ultimately, the student and family make the decisions • Coordination of transition goals center around needs of student and family, not convenience of school. What school needs to do to support goals of student and family? • Schools must decrease barriers that keep families from participation in transition planning (Novick, 2001; Turnbull et al, 2006; Kochhar-Bryant, 2009)


  29. What impacts a path to college? Finance Disability Disclosure Student motivation Family Knowledge

  30. What can we do? • Become familiar with different college funding mechanisms: • 529 plans • Vocational Rehabilitation • Waivers • Comprehensive Transition Programs • National Service Education Awards • Scholarships

  31. Disclosure • Multiple studies point to lack of knowledge of services in college as a main reason for not disclosing • e.g., Lightner et al., 2012; Getzel & Thoma, 2008; Salzer et al., 2008; Megivern, 2008

  32. Self-Disclosure From: Newman, Wagner, Cameto, & Knokey (2009). The post high school outcomes of youth with disabilities up to 4 years after high school. A report of findings from the NLTS2. Menlo Park, CA.

  33. Preparatory Postsecondary Education Experiences Summer bridge programs Open enrollment Dual enrollment or college based transition programs College 101 courses

  34. Faculty Expectations ≠Student Knowledge “They Never Told Me What to Expect, so I Didn’t Know What to Do”: Defining and Clarifying the Role of a Community College Student -Karp & Bork, 2012

  35. New Expectations in College Academic skills ≠ Academic Behaviors Structure of day Amount & frequency of feedback Differences in strategies to accomplish tasks (notes, studying, papers) Manage workflow independently Organize & manage time/demands Independent reflective note taking Uses tools of the trade (Karp & Bork, 2012)

  36. Implications for Students with Disabilities • Practice managing own schedule • Use smartphone / tablet to manage school/work/social commitments • Self-monitor progress on assignments/goals • Identify strategies for academic skills (studying, note-taking, written work) • HELP! • Where it is, how to get it, and when its needed

  37. Things Professors Expect • Collegiate discourse (give & take of ideas opinions, demonstrate openness to new ideas) • Respect, commitment, & playing by college rules • Karp & Bork, 2012

  38. Implications for Students with Disabilities Practice how to interact in adult learning environments Learn to express opinions Read context of environment Understand college dynamics/social structure

  39. What can you do tomorrow (or on Monday)? Explore available options Provide flexibility in plans Encourage & support college aspirations Explain & model how things will change in college Explain the change in legal status & roles Encourage use of college behaviors including requesting accommodations Involve parents/families in information gathering Hold high expectations for all students!!

  40. Preparing Students with Disabilities for College and Careers in the 21st Century Johnny Collett Kentucky Department of Education

  41. Mission The Kentucky Department of Education’s mission is to prepare all Kentucky students for next-generation learning, work and citizenship by engaging schools, districts, families and communities through excellent leadership, service and support Vision To ensure that all students reach proficiency and graduate from high school ready for college and careers

  42. Proficient and Prepared

  43. Senate Bill 1(2009 KY General Assembly) • New Assessment and Accountability System • Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education (CPE), the Kentucky Board of Education (KBE), and the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) collaborate to develop a unified strategy to: • reduce college remediation rates of recent high school graduates by at least fifty percent by 2014 from the rates in 2010 • increase the college completion rates of students enrolled in one or more remedial classes by three percent annually from 2009 to 2014

  44. Organizing for Success • Visionary Leadership • Kentucky Board of Education (KBE) • Dr. Terry Holliday, Commissioner (2009) • Felicia Cumings Smith, Associate Commissioner (ONGL) • Re-organization of KY Dept of Ed (2010) • Division that relates to special education locatedin the same Officeas the division that relates to program standards, and the division that relates to effective teachers/leaders • ESEA Waiver

  45. Organizing for Success • Leadership Networks - build capacity of district leadership teams to implement SB 1 (including special educators) • Educational Cooperatives - comprehensive educational services and programs that support member districts/ schools • Special Education Cooperatives - literacy, math, transition, behavior, low incidence, technical assistance, professional development • Continuous Instructional Improvement Technology System (CIITS)

  46. KOSSA - Kentucky OccupationalSkill Standards & Assessments KYOTE - KentuckyOnline Testing ASVAB - Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery

  47. College/Career Readiness (CCR) • Increase the percentage of students who are college- and career-ready from 34% (2010) to 67% (by 2015 ) The cornerstone of the Unbridled Learning Accountability model • 2010 - 34% • 2011 - 38% • 2012 - 47.2%* • *6,733 more students • 2012 CCR rate for students with disabilities – (11.2%)

  48. Individual Learning Plan (ILP) • KY first introduced the web-based ILP statewide for grades 6-12 in 2006 • Completionof the ILP from grade 6-12 is a graduation requirement • At the end of the first school year only 21%of students completed their grade specific requirements • At the end of SY 2013, 89%of students completed the ILP • Assessment results are uploaded to ILPs • Parentshave unique passwords to access their students’ ILP • Students retain access to their ILP after high school • KY has developed several resourcesto assist schools in implementation of and full engagement in the ILP

  49. Operation Preparation • During March 2013, trained volunteer community advisors met with every 8th and 10th grade studentin participating schools. • The community advisor used the student’s ILP (including career interest inventoryand EXPLORE/PLAN results) to discuss the student’s: • career aspirations, required education/training and workforce skills • whether the student is on target to meet their goals • whether the student is taking the courses recommended to prepare them for a successful future

  50. State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG) • Close achievement gaps for SWD • Prepare students participating in KY’s alternate assessment for college/career • Statewide IEP Development Guidance • Standards-based • Statewide training & ongoing TA from KDE • LEAs & other stakeholders