Protons for Breakfast Week 6 Do we need nuclear power?
Nuclear PowerThe UK Energy Scene Security of Supply Cost! Carbon Carbon Carbon Renewables versus Nuclear Chernobyl Carbon Carbon Carbon Link to Weapons Diversity of Supply Carbon Carbon Sustainability Waste!
Nuclear PowerThe UK Context • How is electricity generated? • How much electricity does Britain need and where does it come from? • Nuclear Power Stations are due for closure • Energy Gap? • How to replace the lost generating capacity? • Reduce demand, Wind Power, Tidal Barrage, Solar Power? • Nuclear Power? • Radioactivity & Nuclear Fission • Pros and Cons
Tonight’s TalkElectricity generation in the UK • How is electricity generated? • How much electricity does Britain need and where does it come from? • Nuclear Power Stations are due for closure • How to replace the lost generating capacity? • Reduce demand, Wind Power, Tidal Barrage, Solar Power? • Nuclear Power? • Radioactivity & Nuclear Fission • Pros and Cons Does Britian need nuclear power?
Helpers Experts Martin Milton Paul Quincy Nigel Fox Andrew Gregory Andrew Beardmore Bob Clarke Kevin Lees Alan DuSautoy Alan Turnbull Nigel Jennett John Makepeace Simon Jerome Jonathan Pearce Laurie Winkless Lindsay Chapman Lloyd England Mateusz Szymanski Matthew Tedaldi Neelaksh Sadhoo Paul Carroll Peter Quested Peter Woolliams Rainer Winkler Richard Gilham Robert Goddard Robin Underwood Ruth Montgomery Sharmila Hanson Stephanie Bell Thomas Korrison Andrew Hanson Arzu Arinc Averil Horton Bufa Zhang Clive Scoggins Daniel Gittings Davide Di Maio Deborah Lea Eleanor Bakhshandeiar Emma Woolliams Gianluca Memoli Jacquie Elkin James Miall Jeff Flowers Jenny Wilkinson Jian Wang Joanna Lee John Makepeace John Mountford
Electricity Eeeee - lec- tric-ity Where does it come from?
Tonight’s Talk How is electricity generated?
While the station powers up… • Please take 10 minutes to fill out the feedback forms. • These forms are important • They help everyone involved in the course assess whether it has been successful, and decide what to change and what to keep the same Ticking the boxes is important, butyour comments are especially valuable.
Electricity Generation in UKDaily variations in 2001/2002 1 gigawatt (GW) billion watts =109 W =10 Million 100 W light bulbs Roughly speaking 1 large power station gigawatt (GW) billion watts =109 W = 1000000000 W =10 Million Light bulbs
Electricity Demand 2001-2009 Mmmm. Looks near to 60 GW peak demand!
Electricity Generation in UK Daily variations in 2001/2002 1 gigawatt (GW) billion watts =109 W =10 Million 100 W light bulbs Roughly speaking 1 large power station
How do we meet this demand? Energy Consumption Right Now!
Electricity Generation in UK Other Imports Power (GW) Typical Winter Demand Thursday 6th December 2001 50 40 Large Coal 30 20 Gas (Combined Cycle) 10 Nuclear 0 0:00 6:00 12:00 18:00 24:00 Time of Day
Current UK Nuclear CapacityHistory and Future • Decline could be faster • Energy Gap? Future History
Electricity Generation in UK 2020 ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? • Nuclear will decline • Renewables will increase • but by how much? • No shortage of coal and gas • See BP Energy Review • Cost? • Security of supply? Wind/Biomass/Landfill Gas 3.5% Imports Hydroelectric 2.5% 1% Coal Nuclear 33% Oil 1% Gas 40% http://www.bp.com/productlanding.do?categoryId=6929&contentId=7044622
Alternatives? Renewable Gas & Coal Nuclear 60 50 Is it possible to: • Reduce Gas and Coal generation • Increase Renewables • Avoid replacing Nuclear Power stations 40 30 20 Can we reduce demand? 10
What to do?Reduce Demand • My family’s electricity usage for the last four years • Can we make people and businesses use less?electricity? • Price • Rationing 2000 kWh 20% reduction £260 a year
Electricity Usage in UK 2004 Universal use of CF light bulbs will eliminate the need for 1 large power station Lighting • Several easy wins
Alternatives? 60 Most people would think this is wildly optimistic! 50 So reducing demand could help. 40 30 What can windprovide? 20 10
Wind Power (1)UK Wind in 2007 • UK has some of the best sites in Europe • Currently • 154 Projects • 1900 Turbines • 2.293 GW • Plus 1.3 GW under construction 4.6 GW planning approved 9.8 GW seeking approval 18 GW in a few years time
Wind Power Could we get10% (5.3 GW) of electricity from wind? • Wind has problems of • availability • variability • Build 5000 of the largest wind turbines 13 GW • On average generates only 5.3 GW • Sometimes more: Sometimes less! • Can’t control when! • Retain 3 GW of coal fired capacity as ‘backup’ 5.3 GW 3 GW
Alternatives? 60 Very ambitious, but achievable… 50 WIND So wind can provide a lot of power, but we can’t control when it is generated Could we store some of the power? 40 30 20 10
Wind Power The Grid • Electricity needs to be generated atexactlythe time it is needed. • Storage is possible, but difficult: • Variabilitylimits likely maximum wind contribution to about… • 10%? Yes • 20%? Arguably • 30%? Unlikely Photo Credit Spencer Jarvis
Electricity Generation in UKPumped Storage 0 to 1.3 GW in 12 seconds
Other Alternatives? 60 50 WIND WIND& STOR So reducing demand can help. And wind and stored energy could help too What about solar electricity? 40 30 20 10
Solar Photo VoltaicStep 1 • Put this on your roof • 9 m2 • Twickenham
Solar Photo Voltaic Step 2 • Put these in your house
Solar Photo VoltaicHey presto! AMAZING FACT! In the summer months – there is more solar energy at UK latitude than EVER reaches the Equator! • Average: 3.5 kWh/day (1277.5 kWh/year) • Saving: 3.5 x 13 pence per kWh = 46 p/day (£166 / year) • Cost in: 2005: £9000 • Return on investment: 1.8 % PLUS GOVERNMENT CASHBACK! £0.35 for every unit fed back to the grid!
Other Alternatives? 60 Mainly in Summer… 50 WIND WIND& STOR So reducing demand can help. And wind and stored energy could help too. Even solar energy can help 40 SUN 30 20 10
Severn Tidal Barrage Could generate 10% of UK demand 5 GW £15B
Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear FusionWhat is it? deuterium nucleus 100,000,000 ºC 1,000,000 ºC 10,000 ºC neutron proton
Fusion JET http://www.jet.efda.org/ ITER http://www.iter.org/default.aspx Probability of Success by 2025 ????25%???? Probability of Engineering Feasibility by 2100 ???? 5%????
Summary Mmm…Every one of these figures looks optimistic… 60 50 WIND WIND& STOR 40 SUN TIDE 30 20 10
The UK is committed to 34% reduction in CO2 emission by 2020 Nuclear PowerThe UK Context The UK is committed to 80% reduction in CO2 emission by 2050 Sustainable and diverse supplies are more secure RenewablesAND Nuclear Renewables versus Nuclear Energy costs likely to rise in long term
Carbon Crunch 60 50 WIND WIND& STOR 40 SUN TIDE 30 20 10
Summary 60 50 WIND WIND& STOR • 11 GW of CO2-free generating capacity will be retiring in the next 17 years • Even replacing it will not reduce CO2 emissions 40 SUN TIDE 30 20 10 So let’s find out about nuclear power!
To understand nuclear power and how it works we first need to understand about Radioactivity
Some radioactive things (10) Let’s look at some radioactive things… Detectors Cloud Chamber Supermarket Radioactivity
Remember this… Electricity ‘Nuclear’ refersto the nucleusof atoms Heat Electromagnetic waves Atoms
Powers of TenNuclear Power Diameter of the Earth Distance to the Sun Microbes Human Relationships Nucleiof atoms Atoms & molecules Tallest Mountain 1018 1024 10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106 1012 1030 1036 Very Very Small Very Very Large 10-15 10-9 10-3 103 109 1015 1021 1027 1033 The issues surrounding nuclear power involve physical processes with length scales spanning 25 powers of 10!
How are atoms made? Electrical Repulsion proton Interact by the short range ‘strong’ force – not electrical
What is Radioactivity(2)… • Normally nuclei act as heavy point-like centres for atoms • More than 99.9% of the mass of every atom is made of nuclear matter • More than 99.9% of the mass of your breakfast is made of nuclear matter Nucleus
What is Radioactivity(3)… • The number of protons (+) in the nucleus determines the number of electrons required to make the atom neutral • This determines the chemical and physical properties of the atom • But the number of neutrons in a nucleus can vary