slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 56

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 186 Views
  • Uploaded on

Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Karen Huffman, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. Introduction to Sensation & Perception Understanding Sensation How We See and Hear Our Other Senses

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman' - mali


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

  • Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
  • Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

lecture overview
Lecture Overview
  • Introduction to Sensation & Perception
  • Understanding Sensation
  • How We See and Hear
  • Our Other Senses
  • Understanding Perception

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

introduction to sensation and perception
Introduction to Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation (process of receiving, converting, and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain)
  • Perception (process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sensation versus perception
When you stare at the cube on the left, which area is the top, bottom, or back?

In the figure on the right, is this a young woman looking to the right, or an older woman with her chin buried in her jacket?

Sensation Versus Perception

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sensation vs perception
Sensation Vs. Perception

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding sensation processing
Processing (sensory organs contain receptors that receive sensory information from the environment)Understanding Sensation: Processing

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding sensation processing7
Understanding Sensation: Processing

Three Types of Processing:

  • Transduction converts the sensory stimuli into neural impulses that are sent on to the brain.
  • Sensory reduction filters and analyzes incoming sensations before sending on to the brain.
  • Coding converts particular sensory input into a specific sensation sent to parts of the brain.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding sensation processing continued
Transduction, sensory reduction, and coding all occur at the sensory level and messages are then sent on to the brain. Understanding Sensation: Processing (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding sensation thresholds
Understanding Sensation: Thresholds
  • Psychophysics: Testing limits and changes
    • Absolute Threshold: smallest amount of a stimulus we can detect
    • Difference Threshold: minimal difference needed to detect a a stimulus change; also called the just noticeable difference (JND)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding sensation thresholds10
Understanding Sensation: Thresholds
  • Sensory Adaptation: decreased sensory response to continuous stimulation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see
How We See
  • VISION- How We See
  • Light is a form of electromagnetic energy that moves in waves.
  • Many types of electromagnetic waves form the electromagnetic spectrum.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see electromagnetic spectrum
How We See: Electromagnetic Spectrum

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see electromagnetic spectrum13
The flower on the left looks normal to us, whereas the one on the right was photographed under ultraviolet light.How We See: Electromagnetic Spectrum

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see light waves
How We See: Light Waves
  • Light waves vary in:
  • length (wavelength), which determines frequency (hue or color).
  • height (amplitude), which determines brightness or intensity.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see anatomy of the eye
How We See: Anatomy of the Eye
  • The function of the eye is to capture light waves and focus them on receptors at the back of the eyeball.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see structures of the retina
How We See: Structures of the Retina
  • Receptors for vision are the rodsand cones located in the retina.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

do you have a blind spot
Do You Have a Blind Spot?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we see are you nearsighted or farsighted
How We See: Are You Nearsighted or Farsighted?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we hear audition
How We Hear:Audition
  • Sound results from movement of air molecules in a particular wave pattern.
  • Sound waves vary in:
    • length (wavelength), which determines pitch (highness or lowness).
    • height (amplitude), which determines loudness (intensity of the sound).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we hear audition20
How We Hear:Audition
  • The loudness of a sound is measured in decibels. Constant noise above 90 decibels can cause permanent nerve damage to the ear.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

how we hear anatomy of the ear
How We Hear: Anatomy of the Ear
  • Receptors for hearing are hair cells located in the cochlea.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

our other senses
Our Other Senses
  • Our sense of smell is called olfaction.
  • Receptors for smell are embedded in a nasal membrane, the olfactory epithelium.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

our other senses gustation sense of taste
Our Other Senses: Gustation (Sense of Taste)
  • Receptors for gustation are taste buds, located in the papillae on the surface of the tongue.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

our other senses three body senses
Skin sensesinvolvethree basic skin sensations- touch (or pressure), temperature,and pain.

Receptors for these sensations occur in various concentrations and depths in the skin.

Our Other Senses: Three Body Senses

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

our other senses three body senses25
Vestibular sense (or sense of balance) involves the vestibular sacs and semicircular canals located in the inner ear. Our Other Senses: Three Body Senses

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

three body senses continued
Three Body Senses (Continued)
  • Kinesthesia provides the brain with information about bodily posture and bodily movement. Kinesthetic receptors are found throughout the muscles, joints, and tendons of the body.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception
Understanding Perception
  • Illusions:false or misleading perceptions help scientists study the processes of perception (e.g., the horizontal-vertical illusion)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception the muller lyer illusion which vertical line is longer
Understanding Perception: The Muller-Lyer Illusion Which vertical line is longer?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception29
Understanding Perception

Do You See the Cow?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception30
Understanding Perception

Now Can You See the Cow?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception continued
Understanding Perception (Continued)
  • Perception’s three basic processes:
  • Selection
  • Organization
  • Interpretation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception selection
Understanding Perception: Selection
  • Selection (choosing where to direct attention) involves three factors:

Selective Attention (filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages)

Feature Detectors (specialized neurons respond only to certain sensory

information)

Habituation (brain’s tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception selection33
Kittens raised with only vertical visual stimuli fail to develop the ability to detect horizontal lines. Can you explain why?Understanding Perception: Selection

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception organization
Understanding Perception: Organization
  • Organization: assemblingof information into patterns that help us understand the world
  • We organize sensory information in terms of:
    • Form
    • Constancy
    • Depth
    • Color

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception organization35
Understanding Perception: Organization
  • Form Perception

Gestalt psychologists developed laws explaining how people perceive form according to:

    • Figure and ground
    • Proximity
    • Continuity
    • Closure
    • Similarity

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

form perception basic gestalt principles

Understanding Perception: Organization

Form Perception- Basic Gestalt Principles

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

form perception can you explain these impossible figures

Understanding Perception: Organization

Form Perception:Can You Explain These Impossible Figures?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide38

Understanding Perception: Organization

  • Perceptual Constancy: Tendency to perceive the environment as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input.
  • Four best-known constancies:
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Color
    • Brightness

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

can you identify the size shape color and brightness constancies

Understanding Perception: Organization

Can You Identify theSize, Shape, Color, and BrightnessConstancies?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the ames room illusion

Understanding Perception: Organization--

The Ames Room Illusion

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide41
Depth Perception:ability to perceive three dimensional space and accurately judge distance

Understanding Perception: Organization

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide42

Understanding Perception: Organization

Depth Perception (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide43

Understanding Perception: Organization

  • Depth Perception involves both binocular (two eyes) and monocular (one eye) cues.
  • Two Binocular Cues for Depth:

Retinal disparity(separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina)

Convergence(the closer the object the more the eyes turn inward)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

binocular cues retinal disparity left convergence right

Understanding Perception: Organization

Binocular Cues-Retinal Disparity (left) Convergence (right)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide45

Understanding Perception: Organization

  • Six Monocular Depth Cues: Can You Find Them?
  • linear perspective
  • interposition
  • relative size
  • texture gradient
  • aerial perspective
  • light and shadow

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide46
Color Perceptionis a combination of two theories:

Trichromatic: color perception results from mixing three distinct color systems (red, green, and blue)

Understanding Perception: Organization

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide47
Color Perceptionis a combination of two theories:

Understanding Perception: Organization

  • Opponent-process: color perception results from three systems of color opposites (blue-yellow, red-green, and black-white)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide48
People who have red-green color deficiency have trouble perceiving the green colored number in the center of this circle.

Understanding Perception: Organization

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide49

Understanding Perception: Organization and Color Perception

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

understanding perception four factors in interpretation
Interpretation(how we explain sensations) involves four major factors:

Perceptual adaptation(brain adapts to changed environments)

Understanding Perception: Four Factors in Interpretation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide51
Perceptual set:readiness to perceive in a particular manner, based on expectations

Some groups are more likely than others to be affected by the center item in this collection. Can you explain why?

Understanding Perception: Four Factors in Interpretation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide52
Another example of perceptual set. Do you notice anything wrong with these photos?

Understanding Perception: Four Factors in Interpretation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide53

Understanding Perception: Four Factors in Interpretation

  • Frame of reference:based on the context of the situation
  • Bottom-uportop-down processing:information either starts with raw sensory data or with thoughts, expectations, and knowledge

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

problems with believing in subliminal perception and esp
Subliminal perceptionmay occur, but there is little or no evidence ofsubliminal persuasion.Problems with Believing in Subliminal Perception and ESP

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

problems with believing in subliminal perception and esp55
Problems with Believing in Subliminal Perception and ESP
  • Extrasensory perception (ESP): supposed ability to perceive things that go beyond the five normal senses
  • ESP research is criticized due to lack of experimental control and replicability.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide56

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

  • End of Chapter 4:
  • Sensation and Perception
  • Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)