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Bryophytes. Biology 11 Mr. Wolfe. Nonvascular plants. No vascular tissue Vascular = small vessel Pertains to any plant tissue or region consisting of or giving rise to conducting tissue (i.e. xylem, phloem, or cambium All Bryophytes are severely restricted in their size and habitat

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bryophytes

Bryophytes

Biology 11

Mr. Wolfe

nonvascular plants
Nonvascular plants
  • No vascular tissue
    • Vascular = small vessel
    • Pertains to any plant tissue or region consisting of or giving rise to conducting tissue (i.e. xylem, phloem, or cambium
  • All Bryophytes are severely restricted in their size and habitat
  • All Bryophytes have:
    • Flagellated sperm
    • An alternation of generations life cycle
similarities to algae
Similarities to Algae?
  • What is the same?
  • What is different?
  • Any similarities to other life forms?
vocabulary list for bryophytes
Vocabulary list for Bryophytes
  • Meiosis and Mitosis
  • Haploid and Diploid
  • Gametophyte and Gamete
  • Sperm and Egg
  • Zygote
  • Sporophyte and Sporangium
  • Elators and Spores
  • Capsule and Operculum and Peristome Teeth
  • Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction
  • Thallus, Protonema and Rhizoids
  • Gemmae Cups
  • Antheridium andArchegonium
  • Epidermis and Vascular tissue
taxonomic class notes
Taxonomic Class notes

Phylum Bryophyta

  • Class Bryopsida(true mosses)
      • Subclass Bryidae
      • Subclass Buxbaumiidae
      • Subclass Dicranidae
      • Subclass Disphysciidae
      • Subclass Funariidae
      • Subclass Timmiidae
    • Class Tetraphidopsida (4-toothed)
    • Class Polytrichopsida (hair-cap)
    • Class Oedopodiopsida
    • Class Andreaeopsida(valved)
    • Class Andreaeobryopsida
    • Class Sphagnopsida (peat)
    • Class Takakiopsida (puzzle)
taxonomic class notes1
Taxonomic Class notes
  • The Liverworts or Hepatics
  • Phylum Marchantiophyta
    • Class Jungermanniopsida (scale-mosses)
      • Subclass Jungermanniidae (leafy)
      • Subclass Metzgeriidae (multiform thallose)
      • Subclass Pelliidae
    • Class Marchantiopsida (chambered thallose)
      • Subclass Marchantiidae
    • Class Haplomitriopsida
      • Subclass Haplomitriidae
taxonomic class notes2
Taxonomic Class notes
  • The Hornworts
  • Phylum Anthocerotophyta
moss distribution in bc
Moss distribution in BC
  • Throughout BC
  • Coastal and Interior Humid Forest
  • Calcium-rich substrata
  • Widespread, but not NW Boreal region
  • Coastal region
  • Semi-arid Interior
  • Northern BC
moss habitats in bc
Moss habitats in BC
  • Rock surfaces, subject to drying
  • Rock surfaces, subject to splashing
  • Ledges and crevices of cliffs
  • Dry, sunny, exposed sites on soil
  • Shaded forest floor
  • Wet swamps or bogs
  • Disturbed areas (i.e. roadside, sand)
  • On garden soil of shady sites
  • Lawns
  • On mortar, between bricks and concrete
  • Tree trunks - Epiphytic habitats
  • On root systems and sterile soil of fallen trees
  • On rotten stumps and logs
  • Open tundra
sphagnum spp notes
Sphagnum spp. notes
  • 14 of the 40 species in the Richmond Nature Park are Sphagnum species
  • Living plants are only a few cm. tall. Remain connected to non-living parts: 100s of yrs old, metresbelowground
  • They are the peat moss of wetlands that develop under cool, wet climatic conditions with rainwater
  • Form extensive ‘quaking carpets’
  • Some are aquatic and float in marginal water
  • They absorb chemical substances and leave the surrounding water more acidic then they found it
  • Acidic water inhibits decay and permits few associations (i.e. relations with lodgepole pines)
  • Nearly all have identical sporophyte capsules
  • Operculum (lid) opens with implosive mechanism
city mosses
City Mosses
  • Notes from the chapter reading of “Gathering Moss: A Natural and Cultural History of Moss” by Robin Wall Kimmerer
contents for the next project bryophytes brochure
Contents for the next project: Bryophytes Brochure
  • Taxonomy
  • Morphology / Anatomy
  • Life History / Life Cycles
  • Reproduction / Growth
  • Communities / Ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis
  • Nutrient-Uptake Requirements
  • Temperature and Salinity
  • Pollution and Habitat loss
  • Cultivation and Grocery Store Botany
peristome teeth
Peristome Teeth
  • Usually composed of cell wall remnants,
  • They respond to changes in the humidity of the atmosphere.
  • Under conditions of low humidity, the teeth dry out
    • and splay away from the mouth of the capsule,
    • thus, allowing the 50,000 spores within to be gradually released.
moss use gemmae on the apex of their leaves
Moss use Gemmae on the apex of their leaves
  • Gemma are a small mass of cells
  • They fall off readily and grow into a new leafy gametophyte if they land in a suitable environment
reproduction with a gemma cup
Reproduction with a gemma cup

A form of asexual reproduction in chambered hepatics

Loose gemmae are dispersed when raindrops slash the cups

slide20
Most Hepatics and Hornworts have Sporophytes with Elators mixed among the Spores to improve dispersion

Elators are elongate sterile cells

burning peatlands carbon dioxide and methane
Burning Peatlands?Carbon Dioxide and Methane
  • The main forms of carbon in a peatland are CO2, CH4, and organic carbon held by the plants and peat.
  • CO2 is taken into produce sugars (food)
  • When plants die they produce CO2+CH4
  • A waterlogged environment releases slowly
  • Peatlands (wetlands & bogs) are carbon sinks
  • Burns Bog accounts for 6-12% of GHG storage per year for BC
  • Drainage and fires turn these into carbon sources!!! Not a good result.