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Team Tesla . Anthony Thompson Philip de la Vergne Aaron Wascom Brandon Sciortino. Address concerns from previous PDR presentation Polarity Humidity Temperature Linear Actuator Breakdown Voltage at Sea Level Data Accuracy Data Frequency Requirements System Design Traceability

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team tesla

Team Tesla

Anthony Thompson

Philip de la Vergne

Aaron Wascom

Brandon Sciortino

overview

Address concerns from previous PDR presentation

    • Polarity
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Linear Actuator
    • Breakdown Voltage at Sea Level
    • Data Accuracy
    • Data Frequency
    • Requirements
    • System Design
    • Traceability
    • Software
    • Principal of Operation
    • Payload Development
    • WBS
Overview
polarity
Polarity

Acomparison of breakdown voltages for positive and negative corona

humidity
Humidity

Effect of absolute humidity on the breakdown voltage of a 30cm point-to-plane spark gap

Parameter: Voltage

Positive D.C Voltage

A.C. Voltage

temperature
Temperature

Lower temperatures mean slower molecules, which means that the particles in the air collide with less kinetic energy.

This drop in energy apprehends the production of ions and free electrons, which decrease the current created through the corona breakdown mechanism

slide6

If the payload passes through a cloud the humidity will change rapidly making Its effect on the breakdown voltage more evident.

The Smallest cloud () is about 1000 ft. tall so it insure we get a measurement inside the cloud we will measure no less than every 500 feet

We ascend 1000 ft. per min and want to sample every 500 ft. so we will measure every 30 second's .

  • How accurate to our results need to be?
    • Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Current, Voltage
Data
linear actuator

Data must be taken every 500 feet.

A actuator will increase the distance across the spark gap to prevent a breakdown and the distance at that instant will be recorded.

An analysis of the expected results of this method reveals that it is not plausible.

The linear actuator would have to change the spark gap 19 mm every 500 ft.

Assuming a constant voltage of 3000 V, the sea level pressure distance product on the x-axis of Paschen’s curve is 3 Torr-in. This requires a gap distance of 1.002 mm the gap distance would have to change by 19 micrometers every

Linear Actuator
technical requirements

The payload shall have a temperature sensor that can measure from 40 °C to -70° C and operate throughout the flight.

  • The payload shall measure Temperature to an accuracy of 1 degree Celsius
  • The payload shall measure Pressure to an accuracy of 1 Pa
  • The payload shall have a humidity sensor that can measure 0 to 100% relative humidity and operate throughout the flight.
  • The payload shall measure relative humidity to an accuracy of 1%
  • The payload shall have a pressure sensor that can measure 101.3 kPa to 1 kPaand operate throughout the flight.
Technical Requirements
technical requirements1
Technical Requirements
  • The payload shall provide up to 4.5 kV in order to create a corona discharge at ground level
  • The electrodes shall have a point to plane configuration
  • The payload shall have a 1 mm spark gap
  • The electrodes shall be properly conditioned to provide a smooth finish
  • The anode shall be composed of a gold-plated copper point and the cathode shall be composed of copper
  • The payload shall weigh less than 500 grams.
  • The payload shall have two holes 17 cm apart for interfacing with the LaACESballoon.
  • Record and store data from flight so that it can be retrieved after flight for analysis
  • The payload will have enough power to operate throughout entire flight.
science requirements
Science Requirements
  • The electrodes shall be exposed to external temperature and humidity conditions
  • This payload shall consider a corona discharge of 10-5 Amps to be a breakdown
  • The payload shall increase the voltage with an accuracy of
  • The electrode configuration shall create a positive corona discharge
  • The onboard electronics shall be protected by a Faraday Cage around the spark gap
  • The payload shall record data every 500 feet to observe any clouds in the flight profile
  • The payload shall record temperature, pressure, humidity, and breakdown voltage from 0 to 100,000 feet
principle of operation

Measure pressure, temperature, humidity, breakdown voltage, and current across the spark gap

Sensors: Piezoelectric, thermistor, relative humidity

Exposed to environmental conditions

Voltage across spark gap increased until 10 microamps are measured

Voltage comparator observes corona discharge

Switch opened, data recorded, voltage set to zero

Principle of Operation
electrical development

Temperature Sensor

    • Select sensor that operates within requirements
      • Measure from -70 to 40 degrees Celsius
      • Operates within 40 degrees Celsius
      • Accurate to +/- 1 degree Celsius
    • Order Sensor
    • Draw preliminary schematic
    • Measure accuracy and compare to data sheet accuracy
    • Calibrate sensor according to difference between data sheet and observed accuracy
    • Determine necessary gain for op-amp conditioning circuit
    • Select resistors for op-amp circuit
    • Test to operate under 100% relative humidity
    • Test performance in thermal/pressure environments
Electrical Development
electrical development1
Electrical Development
  • Pressure sensor
    • Select sensor that operates within requirements
    • Measure from -70 to 40 degrees Celsius
    • Operates within 40 degrees Celsius
    • Accurate to +/- 133 Pa
    • Order Sensor
  • Draw preliminary schematic
  • Measure accuracy and compare to data sheet accuracy
  • Calibrate sensor according to difference between data sheet and observed accuracy
  • Determine necessary gain for op-amp conditioning circuit
  • Select resistors for op-amp circuit
  • Test to operate under 100% relative humidity
  • Test performance in thermal/pressure environments
electrical development2
Electrical Development
  • Humidity sensor
  • Select sensor that operates within requirements
    • Measure from -70 to 40 degrees Celsius
    • Operates within 40 degrees Celsius
    • Accurate to +/- 1%
  • Order Sensor
  • Draw preliminary schematic
  • Measure accuracy and compare to data sheet accuracy
  • Calibrate sensor according to difference between data sheet and observed accuracy
  • Determine necessary gain for op-amp conditioning circuit
  • Select resistors for op-amp circuit
  • Test to operate under 100% relative humidity
  • Test performance in thermal/pressure environments
current detection
Current Detection
  • Flight simulation
    • Compare to expected results to confirm system design
  • Draw Preliminary Schematic
  • Select resistor for voltage comparator circuit
    • Must allow for 10 microamps created at lowest voltage created
  • Select threshold voltage across resistor for voltage comparator
  • Select voltage comparator from threshold voltage, environmental requirements and 2ms response time
    • Operate from 40 to -70 degrees Celsius
  • Select JK Flipflop
    • Operate from -70 to 40 degrees C
    • 2ms response time
  • Determine high voltage at JK Flipflop for high at BASIC Stamp
  • Select transistor
    • Response time less than 2ms
  • Test transistor to confirm response time
  • Purchase materials for electrode configuration
    • Test to determine breakdown voltage at sea level
  • Finalize circuit schematics
  • Flight simulation
    • To confirm system design
mechanical development
Mechanical Development
  • Determine required volume to contain components
  • Determine method of component attachment to payload
  • Determine required dimensions for interfacing and components
  • Thermal test to determine required thickness
  • Shock test
  • Add to weight budget
software development
Software Development
  • Read/Write to EEPROM
    • Determine syntax needed to input and output data to EEPROM
    • Develop subroutine to write data to EEPROM
    • Develop subroutine to prevent overwriting
    • Test to confirm coding
  • Reading sensors
    • Develop subroutines to
      • Record data from ADC
      • Read data from EEPROM
      • Timestamp data
  • Control Voltage
    • Develop subroutine to increase voltage
    • Test output voltage sent to DAC from BASIC Stamp
    • Ensure HVDC output voltage is the same value indicated by BASIC Stamp
    • Develop subroutine to record breakdown voltage
    • Develop subroutine to remove voltage across spark gap
mission development
Mission Development
  • Full flight simulation prior to trip
  • Bring extra batteries, sensors, voltage comparator, JK flipflop, resistors, and HVDC
  • Assemble payload 24 hours prior to launch
    • Test operation off all components prior to launch
  • Launch
    • Run Pre-flight software that leads into operations software
hvdc development
HVDC Development
  • Select and order HVDC based on electrode testing
    • Required breakdown voltage from materials testing
  • Draw Preliminary Schematic
  • Test and compare measured accuracy to data sheet
  • Calibrate HVDC according to difference between data sheet and tests
  • Determine required input voltages to create desired output voltages
  • Test performance in thermal/pressure environment
  • Draw finalized schematics
  • Flight simulation
    • Compare to expected results to confirm system design
  • Add all sensors to weight and power budget
overview1

Mission Goal

Science Objectives

Technical Objectives

Science Background

Science Requirements

Technical Requirements

System Design

Power Budget

Software Design

Structural Design

Management

Overview
mission goal

To study the effects of humidity and temperature on the corona breakdown of the atmosphere in an effort to prevent sparking and ensure safety on future payloads.

Mission Goal
science objectives

Observe the effect of temperature on corona breakdown voltage of the atmosphere

  • Observe the effect of humidity on corona breakdown voltage of the atmosphere
Science Objectives
technical objectives

Measure temperature of the atmosphere

Measure pressure of the atmosphere

Measure humidity of the atmosphere

Measure the corona breakdown voltage as a function of pressure and gap distance

Measure the current across the gap

Meet all payload standards set by LaACES

Technical Objectives
paschen s curve
Paschen’s Curve

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S146685640200067X

electrode geometry polarity
Electrode Geometry & Polarity

http://etd.auburn.edu/etd/bitstream/handle/10415/2044/Lipham_Mark_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1

effects of humidity

Humidity has an effect on the corona breakdown voltage by rearranging the polar water molecules entering the electric field.

Effects of Humidity
effects of temperature

Temperature has an effect on the corona breakdown voltage through increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules within the spark gap.

Effects of Temperature
electrode material
Electrode Material

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=13866&tag=1

electrode roughness
Electrode Roughness

http://www.elect.mrt.ac.lk/HV_Chap1.pdf

environmental conditions
Environmental Conditions

Team Philosohook’sResults

science requirements1

The electrodes shall be exposed to external temperature and humidity conditions.

  • This payload shall successfully create a corona discharge.
  • The electrode configuration shall create a positive corona discharge.
  • The payload’s onboard electrons shall be protected with a Faraday cage.
Science Requirements
technical requirements2

The payload shall have a temperature, pressure, and humidity sensor that can measure and operate throughout the flight.

  • The payload shall detect a corona discharge by intercepting a radio interference and detecting a current spike.
  • The payload shall have an HVDC Converter.
  • The electrodes shall have a point-to-plane configuration.
  • The electrodes shall be properly conditioned.
  • The anode shall be composed of a gold-plated copper point and the cathode shall be composed of copper.
Technical Requirements
hvdc converter

SMHV Series sub-miniature regulated HV DC

0.434 cubic inch converter

0 to 10kV at 1 W of power

5VDC input

On/Off Pin

Voltage and Current monitor outputs

Current Limiting Control inputs

SHORT LEAD TIME

HVDC Converter
power source
Power Source

AAA Energizer L92: Lithium vs. Alkaline

http://data.energizer.com/PDFs/l92.pdf

flight software flowchart
Flight Software Flowchart

Temperature: 1 byte

Humidity : 1 byte

Pressure : 1 byte

Time : 3 bytes

Voltage : 2 byte

Voltage Redundancy: 2 byte

Current : 1 byte

Current Redundancy :1 byte

Radio : 1 bit

Total : 97 bits

external structure
External Structure

1.2cm

15cm

17cm