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Islam. By Anneliese Scalzo and Gabrie lle Jackson APWH Period 5 Schmid 10/18/12. Founder/Founding.

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By AnnelieseScalzo and Gabrielle Jackson

APWH Period 5



Founder founding

The prophet Mohammad (or Muhammad), a camal driver, founded the religion of Islam. In 610 B.C., at the age of forty, Mohammad was visited by the angel, Gabriel, in Mecca. This began a series of revelations that would become the content of the Quran (the Muslim equivalent of the Bible). He went about converting people to this new monotheistic religion that would later become known as Islam. He is viewed today as the last prophet of Allah, the Muslim word for “God”. By 622 B.C., he was run out of Mecca and into Medina by those who opposed his teachings.


  • God in Arabic

  • The color green is an important Muslim symbol. It is used for:

    • decoration of mosques

    • the bindings of Qur'ans

    • the silken covers for the graves of Sufi saints

    • flags of various Muslim countries

    • it was the color used by Muhammad’s tribe on their flags

    • According to Muslims green symbolizes nature and life.

    • In the Qur'an (Surah 76:21), it is said that the inhabitants of paradise will wear green garments of fine silk.

  • Star and Crescent

  • However, Islam is generally against appointing holy symbols


  • Allah, the main god, whose name entails no plural or gender; only deity or god that is to be worshipped. He is understood to be the same god of Judaism and Christianity. Prophets (special messengers) include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, etc. In addition angels, such as Gabriel.,r:35,s:0,i:182

Location of origin
Location of Origin

  • Commonly considered to be Medina, where the prophet fled to in 622 AD.

  • It is also considered to be Mecca, where the prophet first received visions and gathering followers.

Major locations today
Major Locations Today

  • Islam is most commonly practiced in the Middle East, Southwestern Asia, and Northern Africa

Number of followers
Number of Followers

  • Islam is the second largest religion in the world, with 1.1 billion followers.

How why did the religion spread
How/Why did the Religion Spread

  • Muhammad made speeches about the religion, spreading the concepts throughout Mecca and Medina.

  • Followers spread it through military conquests.;_ylt=A0PDoKgUv31QnxsA6aeJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?

Holy book
Holy Book

  • The only holy book in the Islam religion is the Qur’an, which was written by Mohammad in the last 30 years of his life.

Places of worship
Places of Worship

  • Mosques.

  • Often large in size.

  • Commonly equipped with a musallah, one or more domes, one or more minarets, a mihrab, and ablution facilities.


Roles of women and men
Roles of Women and Men;_ylt=A0PDoVxD.X5QUXkAgwaJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?

Islam is historically notorious for its stringent social, cultural, and religious gender roles that its followers are expected to adhere to. Traditionally, Islam is a patriarchal religion that holds gender bias against women. This view contradicts the Quran who views men and women to be equal in “human dignity”. Most women wear a head scarf, veil or Hijab.

Women do not have equal rights, they cannot choose marriage partners, divorce, or child custody. In verse 4.34, men are said to be guardians over women. Women are expected to be obedient wives and mothers. A Muslim man can have up to four wives according to the Quran.

Holy sites
Holy sites;_ylt=A0PDoVxD.X5QUXkAgwaJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?

  • Mecca- Birthplace of Muhammad.

  • Medina- Where Muhammad and his followers sought refuge.;_ylt=A0PDoS6twX1QDnMAHGyJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?;_ylt=A0PDoX_mwX1Ql14Ay_CJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?–+The+Radiant+City&p=medina+city&oid=ba71851afe331344c96c677c03f242cf&fr2=&fr=my-myy&tt=Medina%2B%25E2%2580%2593%2BThe%2BRadiant%2BCity&b=0&ni=105&no=1&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=12mcgslrb&sigb=13ch02spi&sigi=121phbcdr&.crumb=DVnj13ttgMD


  • Major Islam holidays include:

  • Milad un Nabi – Birthday of the Prophet

  • Islam festivals - EidulFitr and EidulAdha

  • Muharram – the Islamic New Year

  • Ramadan – ninth month of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims fast during the daylight hours

    • It is believed that the Qur’an was first revealed during this month

    • It is believed that the gates of heaven are open and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained up.

Major beliefs
Major Beliefs;_ylt=A0PDoVxD.X5QUXkAgwaJzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?

  • - Creation story- Allah created the universe, the heavens, and all creatures in six days. Very similar to the Christian creation story.

  • -Death- When one dies, Allah will have the final say on who passes onto paradise and who is damned to hell.

  • - The Five Pillars of Islam

    - Iman- "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger.“

    - Salat- Pray five times per day by dropping to one's knees and facing Mecca as one does so.

    - Sawm- Fast during the daylight hours of Ramadan, the holy month.

    - Sakat- Donate roughly 2.5% of profit per year to the poor.

    - Hajj- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once at some point in one's life.

Influence on art architecture etc
Influence on art, architecture, etc =DVnj13ttgMD

  • Architecture

    • Islamic architecture is seen in mosques, homes, and gardens. Homes are built around a courtyard. Decoration and color are focused on buildings. In religious buildings geometry is the focus.

  • Art

    • Islamic Art is very unique because it is not restricted to religious art, like Christians are. It is very vibrant and colorful. It does not focus on physical properties, but also their meaning and beauty. Calligraphy and books are major art forms. In Islamic art., geography and patterns are important.

Timeline =DVnj13ttgMD

In 570 CE, Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born

In 610 CE, he received his first vision in a cave near Mecca.

In 622 CE, Muhammad and his followers flee to Medina. This is called Hijira, and this is the year the Islamic calendar begins.

In 650, Caliph Uthman had the Quran written down.

In 680, the death of Husayn marks the beginning of the Shi’a sect.

Timeline cont
Timeline Cont. =DVnj13ttgMD

  • 6. In 754, Baghdad (“City of Peace”) becomes the new capital city of the Abbasid Empire.

  • 7. From 786 t0 809 was the reign of Harunar-Rashid, which is best known through The Thousand and One Nights.

  • 8. In 1109, Christian crusaders took Jerusalem.

  • 9. From 1126 to 1198 was the life of Averroës, a Muslim philosopher who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought.

  • 10. In the late 1990s, the Taliban came to power in Afghanistan.

Works cited
Works Cited =DVnj13ttgMD

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Works cited cont
Works Cited (Cont.) =DVnj13ttgMD

Hayes, Laura, Borgna Brunner, and Beth Rowen. "Who Are the Taliban?" Infoplease. Infoplease, 2007. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Islam and the Role of Women." Belief Net, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

Lane, Jesse. "All Gods Were Created Equal." Heart of Music, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.heart-of->.

"Medina – The Radiant City." Articles Base, 3 Sept. 2011. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Muslim Creation Story." Hampshire Schools, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <>.

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"Newsletter for April 2011." Al-Huda, Apr. 2011. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

Powell-Smith, Michelle. "Roles of Muslim Women." EHow. Demand Media, 17 June 2009. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <>.

"Prophet Mohammad Mihab." Wikipedia, 5 June 2009. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Qur€™anic Quotes." Al Isharah. Blogger, 29 Apr. 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Religions and Belief Systems." Religion, World Religions, Comparative Religion. Religion Facts, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

Works cited cont1
Works Cited (Cont.) =DVnj13ttgMD

"Religions." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Sexuality, Gender, and Islam." Safra Project, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. < genderroles.htm>.

"Stock Photo - A Muslim Women Pray in Isolated White Background." 123RF Stock Photos, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Surat Al-Baqarah." N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Symbols of Islam." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Top 10 Greatest Philosophers in History." Listverse, 19 Feb. 2011. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Understanding Islam from a Christian Worldview: Who Was Muhammad?" Brettneckel's Blog. Word Press, 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi. "Whose Jerusalem? Whose Land?" Christian Action for Isreal, n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"World History Atlas." Wall Maps, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://www.wall->.