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D1.HBS.CL5.10. PROVIDE ADVICE TO PATRONS ON FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICES. Subject Elements. This unit comprises three Elements: Update food and beverage knowledge Advise on menu items Provide wine advice. Assessment. Assessment for this unit may include: Oral questions Written questions

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subject elements
Subject Elements

This unit comprises three Elements:

  • Update food and beverage knowledge
  • Advise on menu items
  • Provide wine advice

Assessment for this unit may include:

  • Oral questions
  • Written questions
  • Work projects
  • Workplace observation of practical skills
  • Practical exercises
  • Formal report from supervisor

Element 1:

Update food and beverage knowledge

update food and beverage knowledge
Update food and beverage knowledge

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Research general information on food and beverage products
  • Identify information required to fulfil responsibilities of job role
  • Develop and maintain product knowledge in line with job role and responsibilities
  • Identify features of specific food and beverages which have potential customer appeal
food and beverage industry
Food and beverage industry

The food and beverage industry is a wide ranging industry incorporating many types of establishments:

  • What types of businesses provide food and beverage service?
  • What are food and beverage departments in a hotel?
food and beverage industry1
Food and beverage industry

Food and beverage departments

  • Restaurants
  • Bars
  • Kitchens
  • Room Service
  • Mini Bars
  • Coffee Shops
food and beverage industry2
Food and beverage industry

Food and beverage departments

  • Nightclubs
  • External Catering
  • Executive Lounges
  • Bottle Shop Operations
product knowledge
Product knowledge

‘Product knowledge’ is at the heart of providing information on food and beverages to customers:

  • What product knowledge do you need to know?
  • Where can you find this information?
product knowledge1
Product knowledge

Types of product knowledge

  • Food knowledge
  • Beverage knowledge
  • Venue knowledge
  • Local area knowledge
sources of food and beverage information
Sources of food and beverage information
  • Trade magazines
  • Feature newspaper articles
  • Television programs
  • Food and beverage reference books
  • Recipes and menus
  • Internet


sources of food and beverage information1
Sources of food and beverage information
  • Wine/food tasting events
  • Promotional activities
  • Trade shows
  • Exhibitions
  • Food and beverage festivals
  • Food and cooking demonstrations


sources of food and beverage information2
Sources of food and beverage information
  • Chefs, cooks and other food service personnel
  • Sales representatives
  • DVDs
  • Customers
  • Workplace observations
  • Own experiences
understanding food knowledge
Understanding food knowledge


Appetisers are menu items offered for guests to eat prior to their main course:

  • What appetisers are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge1
Understanding food knowledge


  • Hors d’oeuvres
  • Canapés
  • Savouries
  • Antipasto
  • Pasta
  • Tapas
  • Finger foods
  • Sandwiches
understanding food knowledge2
Understanding food knowledge


A traditional course on many menus, soups provide low food cost items for many premises:

  • What soups are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge3
Understanding food knowledge


  • Clear soups
  • Broths
  • Purées
  • Cream soups
  • Bisque
understanding food knowledge4
Understanding food knowledge

Meat, poultry, fish and seafood

Staple ingredients can be:

  • The stand-alone ingredient for a dish
  • Ingredients in other menu items
  • What types of meat, poultry, fish and seafood are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge5
Understanding food knowledge


  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Veal
  • Goat
  • Pork
understanding food knowledge6
Understanding food knowledge


  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • Squab
  • Pheasant
  • Duck
  • Goose
understanding food knowledge7
Understanding food knowledge


  • Flat fish
  • Round fish
  • Fillets
  • Whitefish
  • Oily fish
understanding food knowledge8
Understanding food knowledge


  • Shellfish
  • Molluscs
  • Crustaceans
  • Octopus and squid
understanding food knowledge9
Understanding food knowledge


Desserts are served after the main course:

  • What types of desserts are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge10
Understanding food knowledge


  • Cakes
  • Puddings
  • Pies, tarts and flans
  • Fritters
  • Custards and creams
  • Prepared fruit
  • Charlottes
understanding food knowledge11
Understanding food knowledge


  • Bavarois and mousse
  • Souffle
  • Sabayon
  • Meringues
  • Crepes and omelettes
  • Sorbets
  • Ice cream, bombes and parfaits
understanding food knowledge12
Understanding food knowledge


Snacks are light meals, commonly provided for people who are in a hurry or who are not especially hungry:

  • What types of snacks are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge13
Understanding food knowledge


  • Hot chips and wedges
  • Hot dogs
  • Pies, pasties and sausage rolls
  • Croissants
  • Sandwiches and rolls
  • Baguettes
  • Hamburgers
  • Ploughman’s lunch
understanding food knowledge14
Understanding food knowledge


A growing focus on healthy eating has seen increased uptake of fruit in premises:

  • What types of fruit items and dishes are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge15
Understanding food knowledge


  • Pieces of fresh fruit
  • Fresh fruit salad
  • Tinned fruit
  • Dried fruit
understanding food knowledge16
Understanding food knowledge


  • Salads may exist as a stand-alone menu item or as an accompaniment to a main course dish
  • They often come with a dressing
  • What types of salads and dressings are commonly served?
understanding food knowledge17
Understanding food knowledge


  • What types of vegetables are commonly served?
  • How are they prepared and served?
understanding food knowledge18
Understanding food knowledge

Specialist cuisine food items

Specialist cuisine food items commonly relate to cuisines of various cultures:

  • What are different cuisines in different countries?
understanding food knowledge19
Understanding food knowledge

Specialist cuisine food items

  • Offal
  • Aromatics, flavourings, spices, spice mixes and herbs
  • Garnishes
  • Seeds and nuts
  • Grains, rice and pulses
  • Fungi
  • Preserves, condiments and accompaniments
understanding food knowledge20
Understanding food knowledge

Specialist cuisine food items

  • Fruits, vegetables, flowers and salad items
  • Aquatic plants such as seaweeds
  • Specialist cheeses and dairy products
  • Sweeteners such as palm sugar, honey and glucose
  • Fats and oils
  • Bush foods
understanding beverage knowledge
Understanding beverage knowledge

Beverages can be alcoholic or non-alcoholic in nature:

  • What types of beverages exist?
understanding beverage knowledge1
Understanding beverage knowledge


  • Wine is defined as the naturally produced beverage made from the fermented juice of grapes
  • Wine is a major aspect of beverage service and is routinely served to complement a lunch or evening meal
  • Wine knowledge will be covered later in this subject
understanding beverage knowledge2
Understanding beverage knowledge


Spirits are a popular drink in many bars:

  • What types of spirits do you know?
  • Where do they originate from?
  • What are they served with?


Whisky is distilled from grain (barley, rye, maize, cereal).

Four main ones being:

  • Scotch
  • Irish
  • Bourbon
  • Rye

Scotch Whisky

  • Johnnie Walker – red label, blue label, black label, green label and gold label
  • Ballantines
  • The Famous Grouse
  • Teacher’s
  • Grants
  • Dewar’s

Scotch Whisky

  • Black and White
  • Vat 69
  • Chivas Regal
  • Haig’s Dimple
  • Glenmorange
  • Glenlivet
  • Glenfiddich Single Malt 12 years old

Irish Whisky

  • Jameson
  • Paddy’s
  • Tullamore Dew

American Bourbon and Rye Whiskies

  • Wild Turkey Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey
  • Jack Daniels Sour Mash Whiskey
  • Jim Beam Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey
  • Cougar Bourbon


  • Captain Morgan – spiced gold, dark, deluxe, white and gold
  • Bundaberg – underproof and overproof, Royal Liqueur, Distillers No 3
  • Cougar
  • Bacardi – white, black and gold


Gin is produced by rectifying a pure spirit with berries and botanical herbs:

  • Gilbey’s London Dry
  • Gordon’s


Is distilled from a base of grain and can come flavoured:

  • Grey Goose
  • Karloff
  • Finlandia
  • Wyborowa
  • Smirnoff
  • Skyy


Is distilled from grapes:

  • St Remy
  • Hardy’s Black Bottle


The most famous brandy is Cognac made in the Cognac region of France:

  • Courvoisier
  • Remy
  • Napoleon

Service of spirits

With spirits, there are several options available to customers:

  • A standard nip is 30 ml
  • May be served neat or on ice
  • May be served with a mixer
  • Served in a short or long glass
  • Double nips may be served

Common mixers for spirits

  • Gin – tonic water
  • Brandy – dry ginger, cola, lemonade
  • Whisky – dry ginger, cola
  • Rum – cola
  • Vodka – lemonade, orange juice, tomato juice

Other spirits

  • What other spirits can be served?
  • Where do they com from?
  • What are they made from?
  • What mixers can they be served with?
  • Liqueurs are spirits that have been flavoured with fruits, herbs, roots and plants, sweetened and sometimes artificially coloured
  • Liqueurs are proprietary or generic

Proprietary or generic liqueurs

  • Proprietary brands are those produced by a single company such as Grand Marnier, Cointreau, Tia Maria, and Galliano
  • Generics are types of liqueurs that can be made by any company. They come in many flavours

Common generic liqueurs flavours

  • Advocaat
  • Banana
  • Blue curacao
  • Butterscotch
  • Cherry brandy

Common generic liqueurs flavours

  • Crème de cacao
  • Crème de menthe
  • Melon
  • Mint chocolate
  • Triple sec

Common proprietary liqueurs

  • Bailey’s Irish Cream
  • Benedictine DOM
  • Cointreau
  • Drambuie
  • Grand Marnier
  • Kahlua

Common proprietary liqueurs

  • Jagermeister
  • Midori
  • Sambuca
  • Tia Maria

Types of cocktails

  • Frozen
  • Shaken
  • Stirred
  • Built
  • Blended
  • Shots
  • How is beer made?
  • What are types of local beer?
  • What are types of imported beer?

Beer is a term for all fermented liquors brewed from malt and cereals.

Ingredients of beer making include:

  • Malted barley – (sugar source)
  • Yeast – (agent of fermentation)
  • Hops – (flavouring and seasoning)
  • Water

Types of beers


  • Pale Ale (bitters)
  • Dark Ale (stouts)


  • Pale Lager (lagers and pilsners)

Local beers

Each country will have their own specialty beers that are often the most popular and consumed in the greatest amount:

  • What are the popular local beers in your country?
  • What are local ASEAN beers?
  • Are they ales or lagers?

Imported beers

  • Fosters - Australia
  • Lowenbrau – Germany
  • Beck’s – Germany
  • Fürstenburg – Germany
  • König Pilsener – Germany
  • Corona – Mexico
  • Budweiser – USA

Imported beers

  • Hollandia – Holland
  • Heineken – Holland
  • Miller – USA
  • Maes – Belgium
  • Chimay – Belgian
  • Duvel – Belgian
  • Asahi – Japan


beer variations
Beer Variations
  • Shandy – Beer and lemonade
  • Beer with a dash – Beer with a dash of lemonade
  • Lager and lime – Lager with a dash of lime juice
  • Red eye beer – With tomato juice
  • Black and tan – Beer and stout
  • Half and half – Beer and stout
  • Portergaff – Stout and lemonade
  • Stout with a dash – Stout with a dash of lemonade
alcohol strengths
Alcohol strengths

Alcohol by volume

‘Alcohol by volume’ as a percentage (% alc/vol) is the more common way to measure alcohol content and the one that is used in most parts of the world:

  • What is the alcoholic strength of different alcoholic drinks?
alcohol strengths1
Alcohol strengths
  • Spirits 37 – 40 %
  • Liqueurs 17 – 55 %
  • Fortified Wines 20 %
  • Table Wines 12 –14 %
  • Beers 4 – 5 %
  • Light Beers 2 – 3 %
non alcoholic drinks
Non-alcoholic drinks
  • Tea
  • Coffee
  • Milk shakes
  • Flavoured milks
  • Smoothies
  • Hot/iced chocolate
  • Juices


non alcoholic drinks1
Non-alcoholic drinks
  • Cordials and syrups
  • Waters
  • Soft drinks
  • Non-alcoholic cocktails
  • Health drinks
  • Frappés
  • Children’s specialty drinks
  • Energy drinks
food and beverage roles
Food and beverage roles
  • The basis of doing any job properly is knowing what is required of you
  • All jobs have unique activities or ‘tasks’
  • What different roles exist in the different departments within a hotel?
  • Provide food and beverage
  • Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner
  • Service styles:
    • A la carte
    • Buffet
    • Silver service
    • Gueridon service
    • Set menu
restaurant management
Restaurant Management

Restaurant Manager

  • Run restaurant activities
  • Organises menus with chefs
  • Promotional and sales activities
  • Recruit staff
  • Performance Reviews
  • Controls F&B Costs
restaurant management1
Restaurant Management

Restaurant Supervisor

  • Runs shifts
  • Arranges staff rosters/schedules
  • Training for staff
restaurant positions
Restaurant Positions
  • Host
  • Waiter
  • Buffet attendant
  • Bartender
  • Cashier
  • Promotional attendants
  • Busboy

Types of bars

  • Cocktail bars
  • Pool bars
  • Dispense bars
  • Lounge bars
  • KTV Bars
  • Night Clubs
bar management
Bar Management

Bar Manager

  • Arranges cocktail menus
  • Arranges promotions
  • Trains staff
  • Arranges entertainment
  • Controls beverage costs
bar positions
Bar Positions
  • Bar Supervisor
  • Cocktail Waitress
  • Bartender
  • Barback
  • Security
  • Cashier
  • DJ
  • Cloak Room Attendant
coffee lobby lounge
Coffee/Lobby Lounge
  • Meeting and waiting area
  • Provides food and beverage
  • Place for meetings
  • Run over area of restaurants

Types of kitchens

  • Restaurant kitchen
  • Banquet kitchen
  • Room service kitchen
  • Conference kitchen
  • Preparation kitchen
  • Open kitchen
  • Catering kitchen
  • Outdoor kitchen/BBQ area
kitchen management
Kitchen Management

Executive Chef

  • Makes menus
  • Controls food costs
  • Sources suppliers of food
  • Writes and costs menus
  • Ensure that all standard recipes and presentations are being followed
  • Daily tasting of food in all areas
kitchen management1
Kitchen Management

Executive Chef

  • Cook VIP meals
  • Perform on the job training.
  • Employ staff for all kitchen areas
  • Write food budgets
  • Ensure kitchens are clean with proper hygiene
  • Develop low season training programs
kitchen positions
Kitchen Positions
  • Executive Chef
  • Sous Chef
  • Shift Leader Chef
  • Cold Larder Chef
  • Butcher
  • Conference & Banqueting Chef
  • Dessert Chef
kitchen positions1
Kitchen Positions
  • Pastry Chef
  • Kitchens – Positions
  • Kitchen Hand
  • Steward
  • Expeditor
  • Room Service Chef
  • Cafeteria/Staff Meals chef
  • Store person
room service
Room Service

Provides food and beverage to remote locations including:

  • Hotel rooms
  • Private meeting areas
  • Staff meetings
mini bar
Mini Bar
  • Provides in-room food and beverage
conferences and banqueting
Conferences and Banqueting
  • Business Centre
  • Small meetings
  • Conferences
  • Weddings
  • Exhibitions
  • Parties
  • Formal banquets
  • Private functions
  • Sporting events
conferences and banqueting1
Conferences and Banqueting
  • Conference and Banqueting Manager
  • Promotional activities
  • Arrange conference and banqueting programs
  • Client manager
  • Communicate with kitchen staff
  • Arrange equipment
  • (continued)
conferences banqueting
Conferences & Banqueting
  • Conference and Banqueting Manager
  • Arrange additional services (weddings)
  • Control food and beverage costs
  • Meet with suppliers
  • Prepare invitations and signage
  • Arrange participant meals, transport and accommodation
  • Store client property
conference and banqueting positions
Conference and Banqueting Positions
  • Wedding coordinator
  • Master of Ceremonies
  • Greeters
  • Cloak room attendants
  • Waiters
  • Bar staff
  • Entertainment
  • Equipment staff
  • IT staff
executive lounge
Executive Lounge

Provides facilities for VIP guests

  • Check in/out
  • Transportation
  • Airline ticketing
  • Breakfast
  • All day catering
  • Happy hour drinks
  • Business services
  • Meeting room
  • Coffee and lounge area
butler service
Butler Service

Provides all needs of the VIP Guest

  • Packs and launders clothes
  • Cleans shoes
  • Prepares meals
common food and beverage roles
Common food and beverage roles

What are the main tasks of the following common roles:

  • Food waiter
  • Beverage/drinks waiter
common food and beverage roles1
Common food and beverage roles

Food waiters

  • Setting up of the room
  • Greeting guests
  • Taking orders
  • Serving and clearing food
  • Preparing and presenting accounts
  • Receiving payment
  • Farewelling guests
  • Stripping the room at the end of service
common food and beverage roles2
Common food and beverage roles

Beverage waiters

  • Taking drink orders
  • Delivering drinks to the table
  • Serving drinks including wine
  • Making recommendations for drinks to accompany meals
  • Clearing glassware and empty bottles
  • Preparing and presenting the beverage account
  • Processing the drinks account
  • Farewelling guests
common food and beverage roles3
Common food and beverage roles

Documents detailing job roles

  • Position Descriptions
  • Job Descriptions
  • Job Specifications
  • Job Analysis sheets
  • SOPs
developing job specific knowledge
Developing job specific knowledge
  • It is vital for every hospitality employee to have an excellent knowledge of the products and services offered by their workplace
  • This section will explore specific information that is required as they relate to individual job roles
developing job specific knowledge1
Developing job specific knowledge

Benefits of job specific knowledge

  • Demonstrates professionalism
  • Informs the customer of the various products or services offered by your place of work.
  • Explains dishes, ingredients and cookery methods
  • Promotes dishes
  • Recommends items
  • Generally assists customers
developing job specific knowledge2
Developing job specific knowledge

Food knowledge

  • Menu items
  • Serve sizes
  • Prices
  • Cooking styles
  • Cooking times
  • Ingredients
  • What is fresh, frozen, pre-prepared
  • Suitability to dietary or cultural requirements
  • Cutlery and crockery required
developing job specific knowledge3
Developing job specific knowledge

Beverage knowledge

  • Drinks that are available from the bar
  • Brand names and types of spirits, liqueurs and fortified wines
  • Cocktails
  • Sparkling wines
  • Soft drinks and other non-alcoholic drinks
developing job specific knowledge4
Developing job specific knowledge

Beverage knowledge

  • Beers
  • Bottled and house wines
  • Knowledge about individual beverages
  • Knowledge about matching beverages to menu items
  • Glassware
developing job specific knowledge5
Developing job specific knowledge

Venue knowledge

  • Opening hours
  • Methods of payment accepted
  • Booking policies and procedures
  • Complaint handling procedures
  • Facilities and services available elsewhere in the venue
  • Names of managers/owners
  • Common issues
  • The Emergency Management Plan
informational sources
Informational sources

Organisational sources

  • Menus, drink lists, wine lists and cocktail lists
  • Taste the products
  • Recipes
  • Experienced staff
  • Operational manuals
  • Policies and procedures manuals
  • Wrapping and packaging material
  • Doing a tour of the premises
identify features of specific food and beverages
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Special items

Individual establishments will have specific food and beverage items that they serve to customers:

  • What ‘special’ food and beverages do outlets served?
  • What are they based on?
  • What different cuisines exist?
identify features of specific food and beverages1
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Understanding special items

Given that some local food and beverage items will come from a specific region, it will be the first time the customer will try it:

  • What do you need to know about these products?
  • Why is it important to know it?
  • How can the information help customers?
identify features of specific food and beverages2
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Understanding special item features

  • History of the item
  • Characteristics of the items
  • Regions of origin
  • How it is prepared
  • How to cook it
  • How to best serve it
identify features of specific food and beverages3
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Understanding special item features

  • Any accompaniments that are commonly served with the item
  • Recommended food or beverage with the items
  • Its availability to purchase
  • What local items to you know?
identify features of specific food and beverages4
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Understanding the local market

It is essential that staff have a sound understanding of all features of the local food and beverage market:

  • What do you need to know about the local market?
  • How can you find this information?
identify features of specific food and beverages5
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Understanding the local market

  • Local produce
  • Local specialities
  • Local food outlets
  • Local festivals and promotions
identify features of specific food and beverages6
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Understanding food and beverage packages and promotions

Each organisation will have different specials or packages that may be used to entice customers, either to the venue or towards specific food or beverage items:

  • What food and beverage promotions exist?
identify features of specific food and beverages7
Identify features of specific food and beverages

Identify general food and beverage trends

  • What food and beverage trends exist in the local region?
  • What are international food and beverage trends?
impact of trends
Impact of trends

The ways these trends may impact on your business may include:

  • Adding new menu items
  • Revising production methods of the items you currently offer
  • Increasing profit margins
  • Reducing selling prices
  • Generating a new target market

Element 2:

Advise on menu items

advise on menu items
Advise on menu items

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Offer advice on suitable combinations of foods, and food and beverages, where appropriate
  • Provide assistance to customers on selection of food and beverage items
  • Respond courteously and authoritatively to customer questions in relation to menus and drink lists
advise on menu items1
Advise on menu items

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Offer advice on suitable combinations of foods, and food and beverages, where appropriate
  • Provide assistance to customers on selection of food and beverage items
offering advice
Offering advice

Most customers who visit a food and beverage establishment will not have the same level of knowledge about the menu offering as staff.

Therefore they may not be aware of:

  • What is available
  • Which are the specialty items
  • What promotions exist
offering advice1
Offering advice

It is part of the standard service by any outlet for staff to help customers choose a food or beverage item that will:

  • Suit both their preferences
  • Match appropriately with what they are eating or drinking
offering advice2
Offering advice

Combinations of foods and beverages may relate to:

  • Customer preferences
  • Traditional combinations of foods, and food and beverages
  • Balance of textures, colour and nutrition
offering advice3
Offering advice

When to offer advice

  • Serving a customer at the bar who is thinking about having a meal
  • Serving the customer at a table who has ordered, or is about to order, their food
  • Greeting and seating the customer
  • In public areas
  • Taking a reservation or enquiry over the telephone
  • Responding to requests
  • When helping customers
offering advice4
Offering advice

Asking questions

  • What investigatory questions can you ask to help identify their desired food and beverage needs?
giving assistance
Giving assistance

Giving general assistance

The most common form of assistance to be provided will evolve around helping to clarify:

  • Compatibility of food and wine choices
  • Interpretation of menu items
giving assistance1
Giving assistance

Giving assistance on food

  • Ingredients in dishes
  • Cooking/preparation times
  • Whether things like MSG, sugar, and flour are present in dishes
  • Serve sizes
  • Whether items are fresh, frozen, canned, etc
  • Why a certain dish has the name it does
  • What different cooking styles mean
  • Menu and cooking terminology
giving assistance2
Giving assistance

Giving assistance on beverages

  • Which ones are suitable drinks for pre-dinner drinks/‘aperitifs’?
  • Which ones are suitable for drinking after a meal?
  • Suggested basic wine and food combinations
  • What they taste like, look like, smell like and where they come from
  • What their alcoholic strength is
giving assistance3
Giving assistance

Giving assistance on beverages

  • Whether they are domestic or imported beverages
  • Information specific to wines
  • Size of serves, bottles, cans and glasses
  • The variety of ways in which different liquors can be served
  • How it may be consumed
  • Any special points about it
giving assistance4
Giving assistance

Considerations when giving assistance

  • The age of the diners
  • The ethnic background of the diner
  • The nature of the group
  • How quickly they want to eat
  • Their budget
  • The occasion
  • Specials to be promoted
giving assistance5
Giving assistance

Offering options and variations

  • Changing menu ingredients or items
  • Price reductions for a smaller serve
  • Paying a bit extra for a bigger serve
  • Ordering an entrée as a main course
  • Ordering a main as an entrée
giving assistance6
Giving assistance

Offering options and variations

  • Changing sauces
  • Changing cooking styles
  • Combining dishes
  • Bringing in their own products
  • Taking a dish home
giving assistance7
Giving assistance

Degrees of ‘doneness’

  • Blue – steak is seared on both sides then served
  • Rare – steak is served when browned on both sides, and meat still contains blood
  • Medium rare – steak has less blood than a rare steak, though blood is still just present
  • Medium to well-done – steak is cooked all the way through, no sign of blood
  • Well-done – steak is cooked very well – a little burnt on the outside and definitely no sign of blood
giving assistance8
Giving assistance

Common requests

  • Need for a drink
  • Need to have a menu
  • Explanation of menu items
  • Need to have their order taken
  • Need for condiments
  • Waiting for food or beverages
giving assistance9
Giving assistance

Common requests

  • Meals are not as expected – may need to be re-heated or replaced
  • Request more cutlery
  • Special requests including high chairs or birthday cakes
  • Request for the bill
giving assistance10
Giving assistance

Being proactive to guest requests

Being proactive is the best way to convey a willingness, both verbally and non-verbally, to assist any customers you believe have a request:

  • How can you be proactive?
giving assistance11
Giving assistance

Handling requests

  • Listening, not just hearing
  • Writing the request
  • Repeating guest’s requests to verify
  • Giving a response to questions
  • Communicating guest’s request to staff member
  • Following up requests
handling special needs
Handling special needs

Handling dietary needs

  • Allergies
  • Medications
  • Health-related conditions
  • Specific diets
  • Healthy meals
  • Gluten-free
  • Vegetarian
  • Vegan
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Handling special needs

Cultural needs

  • Jewish
  • Muslim
  • Hindu
discuss methods of cooking
Discuss methods of cooking

Principles of cooking

  • In general terms, cooking may be seen as the application of heat to food
  • There are numerous ways this heat can be applied, and a diverse range of equipment with which to apply it
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Discuss methods of cooking

Types of cooking methods

  • What methods of cooking exist?
  • What types of menu items are prepared using this method?
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Discuss methods of cooking


Baking is the principle of cookery in which food is subjected to the action of dry heat in an oven.

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Discuss methods of cooking


Blanching is the process by which food is placed in rapidly boiling water for a very short time.

The food is then refreshed by rinsing it or plunging it into cold water to stop the cooking process.

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Discuss methods of cooking


Boiling is the principle of cookery in which food is completely immersed in liquid and cooked at boiling point (100°C).


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Discuss methods of cooking


Braising is the principle of cookery where food is half covered with an appropriate liquid and cooked slowly in a tightly lidded container.

The food is usually left in large pieces which are carved before serving.

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Discuss methods of cooking

Deep frying

Deep frying is the principle of cookery where food is cooked by total immersion in hot fat or oil.

This method is best suited to foods which can be cooked quickly.

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Discuss methods of cooking


Grilling is the principle of cookery where food is cooked by radiated heat directed from above or below.

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Discuss methods of cooking


Microwaving is the principle of cookery in which energy is transferred to the food by electromagnetic radiation.

Microwave ovens can be used for cooking raw food, reheating cooked food and for defrosting frozen food.

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Discuss methods of cooking


Poaching is the principle of cookery where food is completely submerged in liquid just below boiling point.

There should be no visible movement of the liquid.

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Discuss methods of cooking

Roasting/spit roasting

Roasting and spit roasting is the principle of cookery in which food is cooked in an oven or while rotating on a spit:

  • What are common roast meats?
  • What sauces and accompaniments are served with it?
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Discuss methods of cooking

Traditional roasted meals

  • Roast lamb Mint sauce and gravy
  • Roast mutton Onion sauce and gravy
  • Roast pork Sage and onion stuffing, apple sauce and gravy
  • Roast veal Thyme, lemon and parsley stuffing and gravy
  • Roast beef Yorkshire pudding, horseradish sauce and gravy
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Discuss methods of cooking

Traditional roasted meals

  • Roast chicken Thyme, lemon and parsley stuffing and gravy
  • Roast duck Sage and onion stuffing, apple sauce and gravy
  • Roast turkey Chestnut or parsley stuffing, bread sauce, gravy, cranberry sauce/jelly
  • Roast game Cranberry sauce
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Discuss methods of cooking


  • Shallow frying
  • Pan frying
  • Sautéing
  • Stir frying
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Discuss methods of cooking


Simmering is gentle boiling at a temperature of 95ºC–98ºC.

The difference between boiling and simmering is that boiling creates a faster movement of the liquid than simmering.

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Discuss methods of cooking


An increasingly popular cooking method with the health conscious.

Steaming is the principle of cookery where food is cooked by steam, either at atmospheric or high pressure.

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Discuss methods of cooking


  • Stewing is the principle of cookery where the food is completely covered with liquid while it is cooking
  • The long cooking process gives a concentrated flavour to the food and the sauce which are served together as a complete dish
culinary styles and cuisines
Culinary styles and cuisines

Most hotels will provide a wide mix of food options to cater to the different preferences of its local and international customers:

  • What different cuisines do you know?
  • What are common food items in these cuisines?
cuisine in different countries
Cuisine in different countries

Chinese cuisine

  • Kung Pao Chicken
  • Spring Rolls/Egg Rolls
  • Szechuan Hotpot
  • Szechuan Chicken
  • Mushu Pork
  • Fried Rice
  • Beef with Broccoli
  • Fried Dumplings


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Cuisine in different countries

Chinese cuisine

  • Chinese dumpling - jiaozi
  • Hot and Sour Soup
  • Dim Sum
  • Beef Fried Noodles
  • Hunan fried tofu
  • Chow Mein
  • Wontons
  • Peking Duck
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Cuisine in different countries

Indian cuisine

  • Biryani
  • Butter Chicken
  • Vindaloo & Rogan Josh
  • Tandoori Chicken
  • Palak paneer
  • Chole-Bhature
  • Dal makhani
  • Malai Kofta
  • Naan


cuisine in different countries3
Cuisine in different countries

Indian cuisine

  • Samosa and Pakodas
  • Pav Bhaji
  • Panipuri - Chaats
  • Kebabs
  • Aloo gobi
  • Lassi – Shakes
  • Pickles
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Cuisine in different countries

Thai cuisine

  • Tom Yam Goong - Spicy Shrimp Soup
  • Pad Thai - Fried Noodle
  • Kang Keaw Wan Gai - Green Chicken Curry
  • Gaeng Daeng - Red Curry
  • Tom Kha Kai - Chicken in Coconut Milk Soup
  • Tom Yam Gai - Spicy Chicken Soup
  • Moo Sa-Te - Grilled Pork Sticks with Turmeric


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Cuisine in different countries

Thai cuisine

  • Som Tam - Spicy Papaya Salad
  • Yam Nua - Spicy Beef Salad
  • Panaeng - Meat in Spicy Coconut Cream
  • Por Pia Tord - Fried Spring Roll
  • Gai Pad Met Mamuang  - Stir-Fried Chicken with Cashew Nuts
  • Khao Pad - Fried Rice
  • Pak Boong - Morning Glory
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Cuisine in different countries

Vietnamese cuisine

  • Phở - beef noodle soup
  • Bún bò Huế - spicy beef and pork noodle soup
  • Cơm tấm– pork dish
  • Canh chua - Sour soup
  • Bánh hỏi - Thin noodle dish with meat
  • Bò lá lốt – rolled spiced beef dish
  • Bánh mì thịt - Vietnamese baguette


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Cuisine in different countries

Vietnamese cuisine

  • Vietnamese salad rolls
  • Spring rolls
  • Bánh cuốn - Rice flour rolls
  • Bánh bao - A Steamed bun dumpling
  • Bánh chưng - Sticky rice dish
  • Bún măng vịt - Bamboo shoots and duck noodle soup
  • Bún chả - grilled pork and vermicelli noodles dish
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Cuisine in different countries

Japanese cuisine

  • Sashimi – thin slices of raw fish
  • Sushi – raw fish, served on vinegared rice
  • Sushi roll – filling is rolled in rice with a covering of nori
  • Tempura – seafood or vegetables dipped in batter and deep-fried
  • Kare Raisu – curry rice
  • Soba, udon and ramen noodles


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Cuisine in different countries

Japanese cuisine

  • Teppanyaki – Meat, seafood and vegetables prepared in front of guests
  • Donburi – bowl of rice covered with one of a variety of toppings
  • Sukiyaki – savoury stew of vegetables and beef
  • Shabushabu – thin slices of beef dipped in a pot of boiling water and stock
  • Okonomiyaki – savory Japanese pancake
  • Yakitori – broiled chicken
  • Yakiniku – grilled meat
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Cuisine in different countries

French cuisine

  • Soupe à l'oignon – French soup made of onions and beef stock
  • Cheeses – Brie, Camembert, Roquefort
  • Baguette – A long skinny loaf of French bread
  • Boeuf bourguignon – traditional French stew
  • Coq au Vin – A famous food that is simply chicken
  • Flamiche – pie crust filled with cheese and vegetables
  • Salade nicoise


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Cuisine in different countries

French cuisine

  • Duck confit
  • Foie Gras – This is the very fatty liver of a goose or duck
  • Escargots – snails
  • Truffes – Expensive black mushrooms
  • Ratatouille
  • Crepes – thin pancakes
  • Desserts – flans, ganache, tarts, pastries, crossaints
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Cuisine in different countries

Italian cuisine

  • Pizza – cooked dough base with various toppings
  • Chicken parmigiana
  • Gelato – Italian ice-cream
  • Tiramisu – dessert made of biscuits soaked in coffee with layers of whipped mascarpone and egg yolks
  • Risotto – short grain rice dish


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Cuisine in different countries

Italian cuisine

  • Mortadella – heat cured sausage
  • Spumoni - molded Italian ice cream dessert
  • Cheeses – Mozzarella, Parmigiano-Reggiano
  • Pasta – Cannoli, Spaghetti, Penne, Fettuccine, Linguine
  • Lasagna
  • Saltimbocca
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Cuisine in different countries

German cuisine

  • Bratwurst – sausage made of mixed meats
  • Frankfurter – smoked sausage made from pure pork
  • Sauerkraut – Fermented shredded cabbage
  • Spätzle – hand-made noodles
  • Knödel – German dumplings
  • Kartoffelsalat – Potato salad


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Cuisine in different countries

German cuisine

  • Schweinshaxe – Pork hock
  • Eisbein – Ham hock usually served with Sauerkraut
  • Weihnachtsgans roasted goose
  • Wiener schnitzel
  • Strudel
  • Stollen – A bread-like cake
  • Apfelkuchen – Apple Cake
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Cuisine in different countries

Greek cuisine

  • Baklavas – Baklava Pastry
  • Horta Vrasta – Boiled Leafy Greens
  • Tyropitakia – Cheese Pie Triangles
  • Kotosoupa Avgolemono – Chicken & Lemon Rice Soup
  • Revithosoupa – Chickpea Soup


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Cuisine in different countries

Greek cuisine

  • Classic Dips and Spreads – Melitzanosalata, Skorthalia, Taramosalata, Tzatziki
  • Pastitsio or Pasticcio – Creamy Cheesy Baked Pasta with Meat
  • Horiatiki Salata – Greek Salad
  • Moussakas – Moussaka with Eggplant
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Cuisine in different countries

Greek cuisine

  • Arni me Patates – Roasted Lamb with Potatoes
  • Souvlaki – Skewered Kebabs
  • Gyro – Sliced Rotisserie – Roasted Meat
  • Spanakopita or Spanakotyropita – Spinach Pie with Cheese
  • Dolmathes or Dolmades – Stuffed Grape Leaves
  • Yemista me Ryzi – Meatless Stuffed Vegetables
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Cuisine in different countries

Spanish cuisine

  • Pulpo a la Gallega – Galician Octopus
  • Cochinillo Asado – Roast Suckling Pig
  • Paella – Spanish rice dish
  • Jamon Iberico and Chorizo – Iberian Ham and Spicy Sausage
  • Gambas Ajillo – Garlic Prawns


cuisine in different countries20
Cuisine in different countries

Spanish cuisine

  • Pescado Frito – Fried Fish
  • Tortilla Española – Spanish Omelette
  • Gazpacho – Cold Tomato Soup or Liquid Salad
  • Queso Manchego – Spanish Sheep Cheese
  • Patatas Bravas – Fried Potatoes in Spicy Sauce
explaining menu items
Explaining menu items
  • As we can see there is a lot of information regarding food or beverage that can be provided to the customer
  • Any information that is given is appropriate, brief and simple for the customer to understand
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Explaining menu items

Providing explanation

  • Be enthusiastic
  • Match information to the needs of the person
  • Steer away from industry terms and jargon
  • Be sincere, friendly and helpful
  • Be descriptive and generous in explanations
  • Be honest and factual
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Explaining menu items

Providing explanation through different communication

The basic communication options include:

  • Verbal – face to face communication with the customer
  • Written format – hard copy communications such as menus, signs, posters and pictures
  • Non-verbal – facial expressions, gestures, sign language
  • Visual – display tables
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Explaining menu items

Providing explanation through written communication

  • Use graphics or pictures
  • Be produced in different languages
  • Easy to read font
  • Good print size
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Explaining menu items

Appropriate explanation

It is important that when you verbally communicate with a customer it is done so at the appropriate:

  • Pace – Speed of delivery
  • Volume – How loud you are conveying a message
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Explaining menu items

Topics for explanation

  • Menu items
  • Ingredients
  • Methods of preparation of cookery
  • Culinary styles
  • Time to prepare or cook
  • Portion sizes available
  • Alternate or substitute items in dishes
  • Prices
  • Ingredients that customers commonly are allergic to

Element 3:

Provide wine advice

provide wine advice
Provide wine advice

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Offer, where appropriate, assistance to customers making wine selections
  • Provide specific advice on the compatibility of different wines for menu items
  • Provide correct and current information about different wine selections
  • Discuss, where appropriate, wine characteristics in clear and simple language
providing wine advice
Providing wine advice

This section will explore the different elements of wine service that can be provided to a customer to help them make an informed decision in regards to selecting a wine, either to:

  • Compliment a meal
  • To be enjoyed on its own
production of wine
Production of wine

Whilst it is not essential it is often worthwhile to understand the wine making process:

  • How is wine made?
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Production of wine

Basic wine production process

  • Selecting and collecting grapes
  • Fermentation
  • ‘Cleaning’ wine
  • Maturing and Bottling
types of wine
Types of wine

Common types of wine

  • White wine
  • Red wine
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Types of wine

Wine categories

In addition to ‘red’ or white’ table wine, wine can be further categorised as follows:

  • Varietal or generic
  • Sparkling
  • Fortified
varietal wines
Varietal wines
  • ‘Varietal’ wines are wines made from one grape variety
  • The name of this grape appears on the label of the bottle
  • The wine must be made from a minimum 85% of that stated variety
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Varietal wines

Varietal white wines

White grape varieties include:

  • Chardonnay
  • Chenin Blanc
  • Rhine Riesling
  • Sauvignon Blanc
  • Semillon
  • Traminer
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Varietal wines

Varietal red wines

Red grape varieties include:

  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Malbec
  • Merlot
  • Pinot Noir
  • Shiraz
generic wines
Generic wines

‘Generic’ is the term used to describe wines that are made to a style, usually naming a European location as its origin:

  • What generic wines do you know?
generic wines1
Generic wines

Generic white wines

Generic white wines include:

  • Chablis
  • Hock
  • Moselle
  • Riesling
  • Sauternes
  • White Burgundy
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Generic wines

Generic red wines

Generic red wines include:

  • Burgundy
  • Claret
varietal and generic wines
Varietal and generic wines

When most wine industries started, most if not all of its wines were generic wines.

Today there is a tendency for:

  • Cask or house wines to be generic
  • Premium bottled wines to be varietal
champagne sparking wines
Champagne/sparking wines
  • The word ‘Champagne’ is now legally reserved for sparkling wine produced from the Champagne region in France
  • Where produced in other parts of the world, it is correctly now known as ‘sparkling wine’
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Champagne/sparking wines

Production of sparkling wine

Sparkling wines may be made using one of four options:

  • Naturally carbonated wine
  • Carbonated or Injection method
  • Cuvee close, Charmat, Bulk or Tank method
  • Transfer method
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Champagne/sparking wines

Styles of champagne

  • Non-vintage (N.V.)
  • Vintage
  • Rosé
  • Crémant
  • Blanc de blancs
  • Blanc de Noirs
fortified wines
Fortified wines

Fortified wines are base wines which are strengthened or ‘fortified’ by the addition of grape spirit or brandy.

The addition of the grape spirit:

  • Stops fermentation
  • Increases alcoholic strength
  • Adds sweetness
  • Imparts keeping qualities
  • Provides the brandy character
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Fortified wines

Types of fortified wines

  • Sherries
  • Vermouth
  • Ports
  • Muscat
  • Tokay
wine growing countries
Wine growing countries
  • What are famous wine growing countries?
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Wine growing countries

Top 10 wine producing countries in 2011

1 – 5:

  • France
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • United States
  • Argentina


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Wine growing countries

Top 10 wine producing countries in 2011

6 – 10:

  • China
  • Australia
  • South Africa
  • Germany
  • Portugal
wine growing regions
Wine growing regions

Wine growing regions

  • This section will explore some of the most famous regions for producing wine around the world
  • Given that most wines on an international wine list will feature wines from these regions, having a basic understanding of these is helpful
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Wine growing regions


  • Champagne
  • Burgundy (Bourgogne)
  • Bordeaux
  • Sauterne
  • Loire Valley
  • Alsace
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Wine growing regions


  • Tuscany
  • Chianti
  • Albana di Romagna
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Wine growing regions

United States of America

  • Napa Valley
  • Washington
wine growing regions4
Wine growing regions


  • Hunter Valley
  • Barossa Valley
  • Yarra Valley
  • Margaret River
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Wine growing regions


  • Rheinhessen
  • Rheingau

South Africa

  • Cape Winelands

New Zealand

  • Marlborough
provide advice on compatibility of wine and food
Provide advice on compatibility of wine and food

A fundamental requirement when assisting customers to buy a product is to:

  • Determine their needs, wants and preferences
  • Attempt to match what you have to these identified factors
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Provide advice on compatibility of wine and food

Asking questions

  • Do they prefer, or are they looking for, a red or a white?
  • Do they want a wine from a selected country?
  • If they are looking for a white wine, do they prefer or want a sweet or dry one?
  • If they are after a red wine, do they want a full or light-bodied one?
  • Do they have a preference for a particular grape variety, growing region, or winery?
  • How much do they wish to spend?
  • What is the wine to be consumed with?
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Provide advice on compatibility of wine and food

Providing specific information

Information can be gained from:

  • Winemakers
  • Reading wine labels
  • Wine literature
  • Asking others
  • Conducting research
  • Conducting wine tastings
promoting wine
Promoting wine

All venues should actively promote wines to:

  • Enhance the combination of food and wine
  • Optimise sales
  • Maximise customer enjoyment
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Promoting wine

Promoting wines in the dining room

  • Creation of a display table
  • Tent cards on tables
  • Racks, shelving and bins
  • Chalk boards
  • Traditional wine lists
  • Tastings
  • Advice from staff
provide correct and current wine information
Provide correct and current wine information

Undertake wine tasting

One of the best ways to be able to get a first hand understanding of wine is to undertake a wine tasting activity.

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Provide correct and current wine information

Undertake wine tasting

The appreciation of wine can be broken down into three different areas:

  • Appearance
  • Smell
  • Taste
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Provide correct and current wine information

Undertake wine tasting

All three are important aspects of each wine’s character, but taste is considered to be the most critical as it encompasses both flavour and texture and confirms the wine characteristics.

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Provide correct and current wine information

Use information from wine tastings to assist customers with wine selections

  • Your customers will expect you to use product knowledge from wine tastings to help them select a good wine
  • Your employer will also expect you to do this in order to optimise sales
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Provide correct and current wine information

Share your knowledge with customers

There are three basic ways:

  • Tell them verbally of the information you have found
  • Give them a copy of the relevant information
  • Direct them to additional information
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Provide correct and current wine information

Obtaining information

  • Tasting notes written by others
  • Wine magazines
  • Wine-related websites
  • Wine labels
discuss wine characteristics
Discuss wine characteristics

Regardless of your level of wine knowledge, it will be of no use unless it is communicated to the customer in a way that:

  • They will understand
  • Will help them to identify what glass or bottle of wine they would like to purchase
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Discuss wine characteristics

Wine Descriptions

  • Most people do not have the fortune to be able to try the wines before they are purchased and therefore they will be guided by the advice and descriptions provided by the staff
  • It is essential that staff are able to provide terms that help customers understand the different characteristics in reference to a wine
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Discuss wine characteristics

Fruit flavours – White wine


Discuss wine characteristics

Fruit flavours – Red wine


Discuss wine characteristics

Fruit flavours – Sparkling wine/champagne

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Discuss wine characteristics

Body of wine

Light to full body wines

The body of the wine is derived from a number of factors including:

  • Wine variety
  • Regional origin
  • Vintage
  • Alcohol level
  • Production method
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Discuss wine characteristics

Wine Descriptions

  • What other words can be used to describe wine to a customer?
  • Please refer to the extensive glossary of different terms in the Trainee Manual
  • The food and beverage server is the most important communication tool in being able to link what the establishment can offer and what the customer is willing to buy
  • As can be seen in this manual, there are various degrees to product knowledge that must be understood by staff so that they can carefully tailor information to the customer’s needs in the hope of providing them the greatest possible experience


Thank you!