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Chapter 9. Biology Sixth Edition Raven/Johnson (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Drives ATP synthesis. Cellular respiration is the step-wise release of energy from molecules (usually carbohydrates) used to synthesize ATP molecules.

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Biology

Sixth Edition

Raven/Johnson

(c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

slide2

Drives ATP synthesis

Cellular respiration is the step-wise release of energy from molecules (usually carbohydrates) used to synthesize ATP molecules.

Oxidation of glucose is an exergonic reaction (releases energy) which drives ATP synthesis - an endergonic reaction (energy is required).

Overall reaction for cellular respiration:

slide3

NAD+ and FAD

  • Each step of cellular respiration requires a separate enzyme
  • Some enzymes use the oxidation-reduction coenzyme NAD+ or the coenzyme FAD.
slide4

The NAD+ cycle

Remember:

When NAD+ NADH it has been reduced.

Remember:

When NADHNAD+ it has been oxidized.

slide5

4 Phases of Complete Glucose Breakdown

  • Glycolysis - yields 2 ATP
  • Pyruvate oxidation – oxidation reaction
  • Krebs cycle –yields 2 ATP
  • Electron transport chain – yields 32-34 ATP
  • Net ATP produced from respiration: 36-38
slide6

Outside the Mitochondria: Glycolysis

Universally found in all organisms.

Does not require oxygen.

slide7

Overview of Glycolysis

Glucose (6-C sugar)

2 ATP

2 ADP

6-C sugar diphosphate

3-C sugar-phosphate

3-C sugar-phosphate

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 NAD+

2 NADH

2 NADH

3-C pyruvate

3-C pyruvate

slide10

Glycolysis summary

Inputs:

Glucose

2 NAD+

2 ATP

4 ADP + 4 P

Outputs:

2 pyruvate

2 NADH

2 ADP

4 ATP (2 net gain)

slide11

Fermentation inputs and outputs per glucose molecule

Inputs:

glucose

2 ATP

4 ADP + 4 P

Outputs:

2 lactate or 2 alcohol and 2 CO2

2 ADP

4 ATP (2 net gain)

Pyruvate

(Oxygen present)

(Oxygen not present)

Cellular Respiration

Fermentation

slide12

2-carbon molecule + 1 CO2

3-carbon molecule + 0 CO2

slide13

2 NAD+

2 NADH + H+

2Pyruvate + 2CoA

2 Acetyl-CoA + 2CO2

Pyruvate oxidation: if oxygen is present

Pyruvate is converted to a C2acetyl group attached to coenzyme A (CoA), and CO2is released. This occurs in the cytoplasm if oxygen is present.

slide14

Krebs Cycle

  • The Krebs cycle is a cyclical metabolic pathway located in the matrix of the mitochondria.
  • At the start of the citric acid cycle, CoA carries the C2 acetyl group to join a C4 molecule, and C6citrate results.
slide15

Acetyl-CoA (2 C)

NAD+

C6

NADH

C4

CO2

NADH

NAD+

C5

Krebs cycle

FADH2

NAD+

FADH

NADH

C4

CO2

ATP

ADP + P

slide18

Krebs cycle inputs and outputs per glucose molecule

Inputs:

2 acetyl groups

6 NAD+

2 FAD

2 ADP + 2 P

Outputs:

4 CO2

6 NADH

2 FADH2

2 ATP

slide19

Electron Transport Chain

  • The electron transport chain located in the cristae of mitochondria is a series of protein carriers
  • Electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 enter the electron transport chain.
  • As a pair of electrons is passed from carrier to carrier, energy is released and is used to form ATP molecules by oxidative phosphorylation.
slide22

Oxygen receives energy-spent electrons at the end of the electron transport system then combines with hydrogen to form water:

½ O2 + 2 e- + 2 H+→ H2O

slide25

Glycolysis

Transition

Reaction

Krebs

Cycle

NAD+

Electron

Transport

Chain

NADH

Remember: Electrons = Energy

slide30

Acidic group

H group

Amino group

R-group

slide31

With Beta-oxidation the last two carbons of a fatty acid chain enter the Krebs cycle.

This process is repetitive until the entire fatty acid chain is consumed.

A 6 Carbon fatty acid molecule produces more ATP than a glucose (based on the amount of NADH and FADH2 produced.

slide32

When PEP transfers a phosphate group to ADP, pyruvate is formed. This is called substrate level phosphorylation.

slide33

ADP and PEP are substrates and an enzyme facilitates the transfer of a phosphate group from PEP to ADP to create ATP. The energy in the bond is conserved.