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Thallium (I Sulfate). Cuyno , Joanna Marie Torno , Mylene III- BSCT. Background. During the last two centuries, Tl 2 SO 4 had been used for various medical treatments but was abandoned. In the later 1900s it found use mainly for rodenticides .

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thallium i sulfate

Thallium (I Sulfate)

Cuyno, Joanna Marie

Torno, Mylene

III- BSCT

background
Background
  • During the last two centuries, Tl2SO4 had been used for various medical treatments but was abandoned. In the later 1900s it found use mainly for rodenticides.
  • These applications were prohibited in 1972 in the USEPA due to the nonselective nature of its toxicity.
  • Thallium(I) sulfate is created by the reaction of thallium metal with sulfuric acid followed by crystallization.
propriety names
Propriety Names
  • BonideAntzix ant killer
  • GTA Ant bane
  • GTA bait
  • MagikilJelly Ant Bait
  • Rex and Bait
  • Martin’s Rat Stop
  • Liquid Mission Brank ant-roach killer
  • *The CAS registry number is 7446-18-6
common formulation
Common Formulation
  • Main use is against rats. Also used to control mice, squirrels, prairie dogs, moles and water voles. Its main insecticidal use is to control ants and it is also used against cockroaches.
reported cases
Reported Cases
  • Of 778 cases of thallium poisoning reported, 6% were fatal. Thallium acetate was formerly used as a depilatory in children at a single oral dose of 8 mg/kg. Serious poisoning including six deaths was found in 5.5% of 8006 cases.
  • By repeated testing of the urine of 193 patients with accelerated hair loss, 43 cases of mild chronic thallotoxocosis were found.
slide6

Thallotoxocosis

  • a morbid condition due to overactivity of the thyroid gland
toxicity
Toxicity
  • A dosage in excess of 500 mg is reported as fatal. Thallium(I) sulfate, after entering the body, concentrates itself in the kidneys, liver, brain, and other tissues in the body.
toxicity1
Toxicity
  • The mean lethal dose of thallium(I) sulfate for an adult is about 1 gram
  • Thallium(I) cation is very similar to potassium and sodiumcations, which are essential for life. After the thallium ion enters the cell, many of the processes that transport potassium and sodium are disrupted.
hazard identification
Hazard Identification
  • Appearance: Fine crystalline powder.Danger! May be fatal if swallowed. Poison! Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Causes eye and skin irritation. Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. May cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause reproductive and fetal effects. Target Organs: Kidneys, liver, cardiovascular system, nervous system.
hazard identification1
Hazard Identification
  • Potential Health Effects
  • Eye: May cause eye irritation.
  • Skin: May cause skin irritation. May be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts. May cause sensitization by skin contact.
hazard identification2
Hazard Identification
  • Potential Health Effects
  • Ingestion: May be fatal if swallowed. May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause alopecia (loss of hair). Ingested thallium compounds are extremely toxic, causing convulsions, coma, conjunctivitis, runny nose, polyneuritis, motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy, arterial hypertension, rapid heart rate, and skin eruptions
hazard identification3
Hazard Identification
  • Potential Health Effects
  • Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. Thallium Sulfate may damage the nervous system causing numbness, "pins and needles," and/or weakness in the hands and feet.
  • Chronic: May cause reproductive and fetal effects. High exposures to Thallium Sulfate can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, headache, tremors, fatigue, weakness, confusion, convulsions, coma and death. Repeated exposure may cause loss of vision, skin rash and joint pain.
hazard identification4
Hazard Identification
  • The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Chemical poisoning -- Thallium Sulfate includes the 29 symptoms listed below:
  • Incoordination
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Loss of scalp hair
  • Abnormal heart rhythm
  • Brain swelling
  • Peripheral nervous system degeneration
  • Central nervous system degeneration
  • Coma
  • Tremor
  • Delirium
  • Disorientation
  • Garlic breath odor
  • Nausea
  • Dilated pupils
hazard identification5
Hazard Identification
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Hypersensitive palms
  • Hypersensitive soles
  • Tearing eyes
  • Liver necrosis
  • Mees' lines
  • Metallic taste
  • Sensory neuropathy
  • Motor neuropathy
  • Kidney inflammation
  • Optic neuropathy
  • Paresthesia
  • Fluid in the lungs
  • Seizures
first aid measures
First Aid Measures
  • Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical aid immediately.
  • Skin: Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
  • Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT induce vomiting. If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
first aid measures1
First Aid Measures
  • Inhalation: Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.