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Chapter 15 Acids bases. acids. bases. Bitter Turns litmus blue Slippery Phenolphthalein- pink Corrosive Conducts electricity. Sour Turns litmus red Reacts with some metals to produce H 2 Phenolphthalein-clear Corrosive Conducts electricity. Arrhenius Acid.

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chapter 15 acids bases
Chapter 15 Acids bases

acids

bases

Bitter

Turns litmus blue

Slippery

Phenolphthalein-pink

Corrosive

Conducts electricity

  • Sour
  • Turns litmus red
  • Reacts with some metals to produce H2
  • Phenolphthalein-clear
  • Corrosive
  • Conducts electricity
arrhenius acid
Arrhenius Acid
  • produces hydronium ions (H3O+) hydrogen ions (H+) in water
  • dissociate
  • HCl(g) -----> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  • HCl(g) + H2O(l) -----> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  • HF(g) + H2O(l) -----> H3O+(aq) + F-(aq)
  • H2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) --------> H3O+(aq) + HSO4- (aq)
electrolytes dissociate into ions
Electrolytes dissociate into ions
  • Strong electrolyte –completelydissociates
  • K eq is large-lots of ions
  • Weak electrolyte partially dissociates
  • K eq is small, not many ions
  • Strong acid –completely dissociates
  • Ka is large-lots of ions
  • Weak acid
  • partially dissociates
  • Ka is small, not many ions
  • Ka =ionization constant
strong acids h 3 o
Strong Acids [H3O+]
  • HCl
  • HNO3
  • H2SO4
  • HBr
  • HI
  • What is the hydronium ion [H3O+] concentration in a .10 M HCl solution?
  • HCl(g) + H2O(l) -----> H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
weak acids h 3 o
Weak Acids [H3O+]
  • What is the hydronium ion concentration in a .10 M HF solution? (Ka =6.8 x 10-4)
  • HF(g) + H2O(l) <-----> H3O+(aq) + F -(aq)
find ka for weak acid
Find Ka for weak acid
  • A .10 M weak acid has a hydronium ion concentration of

3.0 x 10 -4 M? What is the Ka? (ionization constant)

arrhenius base
Arrhenius Base
  • produces hydroxide (OH-) ion in water
  • NaOH(s) -----> Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
  • Strong base-completely dissociates Kb is large-favors products
  • Weak base-partially dissociates Kb is small-favors reactants
strong bases
Strong Bases
  • NaOH
  • LiOH
  • KOH
  • RbOH
  • CsOH
  • Ca(OH)2
  • Sr(OH)2
  • Ba(OH)2
  • What is the hydroxide ion concentration in a .10 M NaOH solution?
weak base
Weak Base
  • NH3 is a weak base
  • NH3(g) + H2O(l) <-----> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
  • What is the hydroxide ion concentration in a 0.10 M NH3 solution? (Kb for NH3 is 1.8 x 10 -5)
neutralization
Neutralization
  • HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) -------> H2O(l) + NaCl (aq)
  • Acid + Base water + a salt
  • H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)-------> H2O (l)
  • H3O+ (aq) + OH- (aq)------->2 H2O (l)
  • Titrationprocess of adding an acid to a base or base to an acid
  • Equivalence point -moles of H3O+ (H+) = moles of OH-
  • Indicatorchanges color at a certain [H3O+]
  • End point when color changes
  • When titrating to neutrality End point and equivalence point should be very close (Choose an indicator that changes color when moles of H+ = moles of OH-)
  • When neutralizing a strong acid with strongbase the indicator phenolphthalein is usually used
titration molarity of an acid or base or volume of an acid or base
Titrationmolarity of an acid or base orvolume of an acid or base
  • What volume of .10 M HCl is needed to neutralize 10. mL of .20 M NaOH?
  • One to one ratio use MaVa=MbVb
  • Not one to one ratio use stoichiometry
slide13

What is the molarity of an HCl solution if it takes 5.0 mL of .20 M NaOH solution to neutralize 8.0 mL of the HCl?

  • What is the molarity of an H2SO4 solution if it takes 5.0 mL of .20 M NaOH solution to neutralize 4.0 mL of the HCl?
bronsted lowry acids and bases does not need to be in water
Bronsted-Lowry acids and basesdoes not need to be in water

Bronsted Acid

Bronsted Base

Proton (H+) acceptor

strong base –readily accepts a proton- large Kb

weak base – does not readily accept a proton- small Kb

  • Proton (H+) donor
  • strong acid –readily donates a proton- large Ka
  • weak acid – does not readily donate a proton- small Ka
slide15

HCl (aq) + H2O (l) <------> H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

  • NH3 (aq) + H2O(l)< -----> NH4+ (aq) + OH-(aq)
conjugate acid base pair
Conjugate acid/base pair
  • To find conjugate base-remove H+ (proton)
  • Acid conjugate base
  • HF
  • HC2H3O2
  • HSO4-
  • To find conjugate acid-add H+ (proton)
  • Baseconjugate acid
  • OH-
  • NH3
  • CO32-
slide17

H2O(l) + H2O(l) <-----> H3O+(aq) + OH- (aq)

  • Keq = Kw = 1.0 x 10 -14
  • 1.0 x 10 -14 = [H3O+] [OH-]
  • Pure water [H3O+] = [OH-]
1 0 x 10 14 h 3 o oh
1.0 x 10 -14 = [H3O+] [OH-]
  • What is the hydronium ion concentration if the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution is 1.0 x 10 -2?
  • What is the hydroxide ion concentration if the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is 2.0 x 10 -4?
slide19

Acid - more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions

  • Base - more –hydroxide ions than hydronium ions
ph log h 3 o
pH = –log[H3O+]
  • Log in base 10
  • number to which 10 must be raised to equal that number
  • Log of .10 = ?
  • .10 = 10 -1
  • log = -1
  • Log of .010 = ?
  • .010 = 10 -2
  • log = -2
  • What is the pH of a solution that has a hydronium in concentration of .10 M?
  • pH =1
  • What is the pH of a solution that has a hydronium in concentration of .010 M?
  • pH =2
what is the ph of a solution if the hydronium ion concentration is 2 5 x 10 3 m
What is the pH of a solution if the hydronium ion concentration is 2.5 x 10 -3 M ?
  • Estimate
  • On calculator enter -log[H3O+] =
given ph find hydronium ion concentration
Given pH find hydronium ion concentration
  • pH = 1 hydronium ion concentration = .10 M or 10-1 M
  • pH = 2 = = .010 M or 10-2 M
  • pH = 9 = 10-9 M
  • pH = 12 10-12 M
  • What is the hydronium ion concentration of a solution that has a pH of 4.8?
  • On calculator enter 10 x (2nd log button) - pH
ph scale
pH scale
  • 0_________________________________ 7_____________________________________14
  • acid neutral base (alkaline)
  • H3O+ > OH- OH- > H3O+
  • The lower the pH the more acidic The higher the pH the more basic