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Basic Psychological Theories. Dr. Carolyn r. Fallahi. Psychodynamic Theories. Psychodynamic theories: focus = child’s instincts and how his/her social environment produces many characteristics and behaviors. Mind = dynamic and active.

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basic psychological theories

Basic Psychological Theories

Dr. Carolyn r. Fallahi

psychodynamic theories
Psychodynamic Theories
  • Psychodynamic theories: focus = child’s instincts and how his/her social environment produces many characteristics and behaviors.
  • Mind = dynamic and active.
  • Goal: To coexist with society. Can we get our needs met within society’s restrictions?
freud s views
Freud’s views
  • Freud postulated 2 instincts: eros and thantos.
  • Sexual drives.
  • Aggressive drives.
  • How did Freud view sex?
  • Psychodynamic theory.
sigmund freud
Sigmund Freud
  • 1856-1939
  • Viennese physician trained in neurology.
  • While treating patients suffering from hysteria, he began to develop his theory of psychoanalysis.
  • Freud worked with another physician, Joseph Breuer, from whom he learned the technique of catharsis, the so-called talking cure.
  • The treatment of hysteria.
freud s techniques
Freud’s techniques
  • Free association.
  • Hypnosis (Breuer & Freud)
  • Dream interpretation
freud repressed childhood experiences
Freud & repressed childhood experiences
  • Sexual abuse or hysteria?
  • Defense mechanisms
  • Repression
  • Regression
  • Reaction formation
  • Projection
  • Rationalization
  • Displacement
  • Sublimation
the structure of personality
The Structure of Personality
  • Freud proposed that the mind has 3 parts:
    • Conscious
    • Preconscious
    • unconscious
the psychosexual stages of personality development
The Psychosexual stages of Personality Development
  • Oral: B to 1
  • Anal: 1 to 3
  • Phallic: 3 to 5
  • Latency 6 to puberty
  • Genital (puberty)
concepts to cover
Concepts to cover
  • The Oedipus complex
    • Women do not resolve the Oedipal complex as fully as men do.
  • Fixation
problems with freud
Problems with Freud
  • Lack of research
  • Views about women
  • Neo-Freudians
  • A critique
  • Freud’s legacy
humanistic therapies carl rogers
Humanistic therapies – Carl Rogers
  • Person-Centered Therapy
  • Based upon a phenomenological view of human life & helping relationships.
  • Carl Rogers.
  • Ideas: genuineness, nonjudgmental caring, & empathy.
  • Every living being has an actualizing tendency to realize their potential.
  • The therapist has an attitude of respect.
  • Nondirective attitude.
carl rogers
Carl Rogers
  • Congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathy.
  • Congruence
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • Self-actualization
  • Differs from an analyst…. How?
behavioral treatments
Behavioral Treatments
  • Behavioral theories only focus on observable behaviors (rather than unseen, e.g. unconscious).
  • Forces in the environment and outside the person have the primary influence on behavior.
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • John Watson
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • The focus is on the present
  • Behaviors are shaped by the environment.
applied behavioral analysis
Applied Behavioral Analysis
  • Behavioral therapy based on Skinner’s operant conditioning paradigm.
  • Requires careful analysis of the environments in which problem behavior occurs.
  • Careful assessment of the antecedents and consequences of problem and non-problem behaviors.
  • This information is analyzed by the therapist who then describes to the child and important adults how the child’s behavior is being shaped.
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Systematic desensitization (Wolpe, 1958).
  • Used to treat phobias with a technique called reciprocal inhibition = pairs a response that inhibits anxiety (typically relaxation) with the source of the phobia.
  • Explain how it works.
cognitive treatments
Cognitive Treatments
  • Cognitive theories focus on how our thoughts influence our emotions and our behaviors.
  • Behaviors are seen as resulting mainly from thoughts and belief systems rather than emerging from unconscious drives or being shaped by the environment.
  • Albert Ellis - RET
  • Demanding: I must, should, have to, need to.
  • Catastrophizing: it’s awful, terrible, catastrophic
  • Overgeneralizing: I’ll always be a failure; I’ll never make it
  • Copping out: you make me angry; it upsets me
  • These dysfunctional beliefs have rigid, dogmatic demands at their core, e.g. “I absolutely must have this important goal unblocked and fulfilled!
common dysfunctional beliefs
Common Dysfunctional Beliefs
  • I need the love and approval of every significant person in my life.
  • I must be competent and adequate in all possible respects.
  • People (including me) who do things that I disapprove of are bad people who deserve to be severely blamed and punished.
  • It’s catastrophic when things are not the way I’d like them to be.
  • My unhappiness is externally caused; I can’t help feeling and acting as I do and I can’t change my feelings or actions.
common dysfunctional beliefs20
Common Dysfunctional Beliefs
  • When something seems dangerous or about to go wrong, I must constantly worry about it.
  • It is better for me to avoid the frustrations and difficulties of life than it is for me to face them.
  • I need to depend on someone or something that is stronger than I am.
  • Given my childhood experiences and the past I have had, I can’t help being as I am today and I’ll remain this way indefinitely.
  • I can’t help feeling upset about other people’s problems.
  • I can’t settle for less than the right or perfect solution to my problem.
classification issues
Classification Issues
  • Why Classify?
  • To describe & communicate symptoms.
  • IF you know about the diagnosis, you can retrieve information about the etiology of the disorder, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Knowing the disorder provides us with a way of describing the disorder.
  • Knowing the disorder allows us to predict what treatments are going to be clinically useful.
why classify
Why classify?
  • Why classify?
  • The classification & systematic description allows us to formulate theories which play a central role in research.
  • Classification can have a direct impact on broader social consequences by influencing health policy; social policy; forensic decisions; and the economics of the mental health professions.
the antipsychiatry movement
The antipsychiatry movement
  • During the 1960s, psychiatry came under attack from the antipsychiatry movement. Much of the criticism was focused on the clinical activities of diagnoses and classification.
  • Szasz (1961) went so far as to argue that mental illness was a myth.
  • Three major criticisms 1960s
    • 1. psychiatric diagnoses are unreliable
    • 2. diagnoses are based on the medical model
    • 3. problems with labeling and stigmatizing people
rosenhan s famous study 1973
Rosenhan’s famous study (1973)
  • A paper published by Science – “On being sane in insane places”. In this study, 8 normal persons sought admission to 12 different inpatient units.
  • What happened?
dsm iv tr
  • Axis I: Clinical syndromes
  • Axis II: Personality disorders; mental retardation
  • Axis III: General medical conditions
  • Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental problems
        • Problems with primary support group
        • Educational problems
        • Occupational problems
        • Housing/economic problems
        • Problems with access to health care services
        • Problems with legal system/crime
        • Other psychosocial problems & environmental problems
  • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning
    • Ranges from – (inadequate information) – 100 (superior functioning)
psychological testing
Psychological Testing
  • Intelligence testing
  • Achievement testing
  • Testing for a learning disability
  • Personality testing (objective versus projective)
  • Projectives: Goal: present ambiguous stimulus and ask test-takers to describe it or tell a story about it.
    • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) or CAT
    • Draw a person, Draw a family, Sentence Stem
    • Rorschach Inkblot test – 1921 Hermann Rorschach
      • 10 inkblots reflects our inner feelings and conflicts.
      • For example … if we see predatory animals or weapons, we infer that we have aggressive tendencies.
  • Neuropsychological testing