slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Pathways for Motor Control and Learning PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Pathways for Motor Control and Learning

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Pathways for Motor Control and Learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 81 Views
  • Uploaded on

Pathways for Motor Control and Learning. Spinal Cord: The stretch reflex. Maintain stability. Spinal Cord: The stretch reflex. Maintain stability But modifiable: State dependent e.g., gait, sharpshooter. Spinal Cord: The stretch reflex. Maintain stability

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Pathways for Motor Control and Learning' - makan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide3

Spinal Cord: The stretch reflex

Maintain stability

But modifiable: State dependent

e.g., gait, sharpshooter

slide4

Spinal Cord: The stretch reflex

Maintain stability

But modifiable: State dependent

Movement as change between postural states.

slide7

Central Pattern Generators

Evolutionary Learning

slide8

Rapid modification of “ancient” CPG

http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v10/n8/extref/nn1930-S1.mov

Split-belt

Choi and Bastian, 2007

slide9

Rapid modification of “ancient” CPG

Stance Phase Grey: Fast leg Black: Slow leg

Context-specific adaptation

Choi and Bastian, 2007

slide10

Rapid modification of “ancient” CPG

Hybrid walking: One leg forward and one leg backward

http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v10/n8/extref/nn1930-S5.mov

Split-belt

Choi and Bastian, 2007

slide11

Descending Signals: Extrapyramidal Pathways

Integration of other sensory signals with spinal mechanisms.

slide12

Subcortical Characters: The Cerebellum

Multisensory (and other) inputs

Descending and ascending output

slide13

Components of the Basal Ganglia

Striatum

Globus Pallidus

Subthalamic nucleus

Substantia nigra

Subcortical Characters: The Basal Ganglia

slide14

Anatomical features: Multisensory/associative input Complex internal circuitry Restricted output Replication of circuitry

slide16

Pyramidal Tract (corticospinal)

90% Crossed; 10% Uncrossed

Project to motor neurons and spinal interneurons

Origin in M1, premotor, postcentral

Internal capsule

slide17

The Cortex: Secondary Motor Areas

Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)

Premotor Cortex

slide19

Views on hierarchical organization

1. Degree of sensory integration Spinal mechanisms: Limited to somatosensory Cortex: Polysensory

slide20

Views on hierarchical organization

1. Degree of sensory integration Spinal mechanisms: Limited to somatosensory Cortex: Polysensory

2. Flexibility: Contextualization of Action Exploiting degrees of freedom

slide21

Views on hierarchical organization

1. Degree of sensory integration Spinal mechanisms: Limited to somatosensory Cortex: Polysensory

2. Flexibility: Contextualization of Action Exploiting degrees of freedom

3. Abstraction of control Goal > Action > Movement e.g., reaching for coffee cup

slide22

Views on hierarchical organization

1. Degree of sensory integration Spinal mechanisms: Limited to somatosensory Cortex: Polysensory

2. Flexibility: Contextualization of Action Exploiting degrees of freedom

3. Abstraction of control Goal > Action > Movement e.g., reaching for coffee cup

4. Other ???

slide23

Motor Learning

Three paradigms:

Force field learning

A: Baseline (null field) B. Force Field C. Initial Perf. D. Late Perf. E. Generated forces, late F. After-effect in null field

slide24

Motor Learning

Three paradigms:

Force field learning

Visuomotor transformations

DEMO

slide25

Motor Learning

Three paradigms:

Force field learning

Visuomotor transformations

examples: displacements, rotations, inversions, reversals (mirror drawing), depth distortions

slide26

Motor Learning

Three paradigms:

Force field learning

Visuomotor transformations

Sequence learning

Serial Reaction Time Task

Press response key corresponding to stimulus position.

Stimuli follow sequence or are chosen at random.

slide27

Motor Learning

Three paradigms Force field adaptation Visuomotor transformations Sequence learning

Does one term (motor learning) fit all?

How to determine similarities/differences?

slide28

Motor Learning

S&W’s (anti)definition: Adaptation vs. Skills

Adaptation: Retuning of existing competence.

“Regain capabilities in altered circumstances.”

Skill: “Expansion of motor repertoire.”

Force field: Adaptation

Sequence learning: Skill

Visuomotor transformation: ???

slide29

Acquisition:

error type?

on-line vs. knowledge of results

sensory vs. symbolic?

rate of learning?

slide30

Acquisition: error type? rate of learning?

Generalization local or general? transfer? SRT is symmetric Force field is better right to left VMT may be better left to right (?)

slide31

Acquisition: error type? rate of learning?

Generalization local or general? transfer?

Consolidation: Stability over time? Does learning related task interfere with initial learning?

Would this be characteristic of skill or adaptation?

slide32

Consolidation in force field learning:

B1: Initial force field

B2: Second force field, learning after delay (consolidation phase)

Time-dependent consolidation.

Always some interference from B2.

Is “control” correct term? Note that in control, there is an intervening force field– the null field of everyday life.

slide33

Motor Learning

Three paradigms Force field adaptation Visuomotor transformations Sequence learning

Neural systems: Do these tasks engage common regions?