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Chapter Five. Consolidated Financial Statements – Intercompany Asset Transactions. Intercompany Inventory Transactions. Transactions between the parent and subsidiary are viewed as “internal” transactions of a single economic entity.

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chapter five
Chapter Five

Consolidated Financial Statements – Intercompany Asset Transactions

intercompany inventory transactions
Intercompany Inventory Transactions
  • Transactions between the parent and subsidiary are viewed as “internal” transactions of a single economic entity.
  • The effects of intercompany transactions should be “eliminated” from the consolidated financial statements.
intercompany inventory transactions1
Intercompany Inventory Transactions

ENTRY TI

On the consolidation worksheet, eliminate ALL intercompany sales/purchases of inventory.

The elimination amount is the amount assigned as the “sales price” of the transfer.

Purchases component of COGS.

unrealized inventory gains year of transfer
Unrealized Inventory GainsYear of Transfer

ENTRY G

Despite Entry TI, ending inventory is still overstated by the amount of gain on the inventory that is still unsold at year end.

We must eliminate the unrealized gain as follows:

Ending Inventory component of COGS.

unrealized inventory gains year following year of transfer
Unrealized Inventory GainsYear Following Year of Transfer

ENTRY *G

If the inventory was sold during the year, the gain is now in Retained Earnings and must be moved back to Income.

unrealized inventory gains year following year of transfer1
Unrealized Inventory GainsYear Following Year of Transfer

ENTRY *G

If the transfer of inventory is DOWNSTREAM & if the parent uses the Equity Method, then the following entry is used to recognize the remaining unrealized profit left at the end of the previous year.

inventory transfers example
Inventory TransfersExample

On April 5, 2008 World Co (parent) buys 1,000 widgets from Sub, Inc. for $500,000. The widgets originally cost Sub, Inc. $400,000.

At year-end on December 31, 2008, World Co. still had 250 of the units on hand.

Record the consolidation entries on 12/31/08 to eliminate the unrealized gain.

inventory transfers example1
Inventory TransfersExample

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First, the entire intercompany transfer must be eliminated.

unrealized inventory gains effect on noncontrolling interest
Unrealized Inventory GainsEffect on Noncontrolling Interest
  • If the transfer is DOWNSTREAM, then any resulting unrealized gain belongs to the parent.
    • No effect on Noncontrolling Interest
  • If the transfer is UPSTREAM, then any resulting unrealized gain belongs to the subsidiary.
    • Noncontrolling Interest must be adjusted for the unrealized gain.
unrealized inventory gains effect on noncontrolling interest1
Unrealized Inventory GainsEffect on Noncontrolling Interest

Noncontrolling Interest in Sub Net Income = the noncontrolling % of the sub’s net income, AFTER eliminating UPSTREAM unrealized intercompany profit.

intercompany land transfers eliminating unrealized gains
Intercompany Land TransfersEliminating Unrealized Gains

ENTRY TL

If land is transferred between the parent and sub at a gain, the gain is considered unrealized and must be eliminated.

By crediting land for the same amount, this effectively returns the land to its carrying value on the date of transfer.

intercompany land transfers eliminating unrealized gains1
Intercompany Land TransfersEliminating Unrealized Gains

ENTRY *GL

As long as the land remains on the books of the buyer, the unrealized gain must be eliminated at the end of each fiscal period.

The original gain appeared on last period’s income statement. Now, the gain resides in R/E. Therefore, when we eliminate the gain, it must come from R/E.

intercompany land transfers eliminating unrealized gains2
Intercompany Land TransfersEliminating Unrealized Gains

ENTRY *GL (Year of sale)

In the year of disposal, modify the entry *GL, so that the unrealized gain must be eliminated one more time, and also recognized as a REALIZED gain in the current period’s consolidated financial statements.

land transfers example
Land TransfersExample

On June 25, 2007 World Co. (parent) sells a 30 acre tract of land originally costing $600,000 to Sub, Inc. for $750,000.

At year-end on December 31, 2009 Sub Inc. still owns the land.

Record the appropriate consolidation entry on 12/31/09.

land transfers example1
Land TransfersExample

This entry must be made at the end of each year as long as the land is still on the books.

the effect of land transfers on noncontrolling interests
The Effect of Land Transfers on Noncontrolling Interests

If the transfer is UPSTREAM, the gain is attributed to the SUBSIDIARY!

All noncontrolling interest balances are to be based on the subsidiary’s net income EXCLUDING the intercompany gain

What if the land transfer is UPSTREAM?

If the transfer is DOWNSTREAM, there is no effect on noncontrolling interest.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

ENTRY TA

In the year of transfer, the unrealized gain must be eliminated and the assets restated to original historical cost.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets1
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

ENTRY ED

In addition, the buyer’s depreciation is based on the inflated transfer price. The excess depreciation expense must be eliminated.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets2
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

In Years Following the Year of Transfer

The equipment is carried on the individual books at a different amount than on the consolidated books.

These amounts change each year as depreciation is computed.

To get the worksheet adjustments, compare the individual records to the consolidated records.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets3
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

Big Wheel Trucking (BWT) owns 80% of Quick Delivery, Inc. On 1/1/07, Quick Delivery has a truck on the books with an original cost of $100,000, and accumulated depreciation of $60,000 (4 year remaining useful life, $0 salvage value, straight-line).

Quick Delivery sells the truck to BWT for $80,000.

Analyze the information in preparation for making entries on 12/31/08.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets4
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

On BWT’s books, the annual depreciation = $80,000 ÷ 4 yrs. = $20,000 per year.

The 1/1/08 R/E effect = the original gain of $40,000 on Quick Delivery’s books less 1 year of depreciation.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets5
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

For the consolidated entity, the annual depreciation = $40,000 remaining BV ÷ 4 yrs. = $10,000 per year.

The Acc. Depr. At 12/31/08 = $60,000 accumulated depreciation at 1/1/07 + 2 years of depreciation.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets6
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

The consolidation worksheet adjustments appear in the last column.

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets7
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

ENTRY *TA (Subsequent Years)

The adjustment to fixed assets and depreciation expense must be made in each succeeding period. The entry for the BWT/Quick Delivery Consolidation is:

intercompany transfer of depreciable assets8
Intercompany Transfer of Depreciable Assets

ENTRY ED (Subsequent Years)

In addition, we must adjust for the difference in Depreciation Expense on the two income statements. The entry for our example is:

summary
Summary
  • Transfers of assets between the members of a business combination are common.
  • In producing consolidated financial statements, the effects of these transfers on the separate accounting records must be removed
  • Transfers of depreciable assets have the additional accounting problem of differing depreciation amounts. These effects must be dealt with on the consolidated worksheets
possible criticisms
Possible Criticisms
  • No formal accounting pronouncements deal with the valuation of noncontrolling interests in the deferral and subsequent realization of intercompany gains. Traditionally, the deferral of gains from upstream sales is presumed to affect the noncontrolling interest, whereas downstream sales do not.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

end of chapter 5
End of Chapter 5

Hey, Chester, ol’ buddy!

I’m thinkin’ we need to switch desks in a little “intercompany” transfer.