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Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

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Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

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  1. Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems SNC1D0

  2. Canadian Biomes

  3. Boreal Forest

  4. Boreal Forest

  5. Boreal Forest • Abiotic Factors • Warmer than tundra (no permafrost) • Soil has some water, but is acidic • Precipitation is ~ 40 cm/year • Biotic Factors • Coniferous Trees (mainly) • Seed-eating birds why do these • Showshoe hares organisms live • Black bears here? • Grey wolves • Voles and Pine Martens

  6. Boreal Forest

  7. Temperate Deciduous Forest

  8. Temperate Deciduous Forest • Abiotic Factors • Long growing season • Higher temperature than boreal forest or tundra • Fertile soil • High precipitation (100 cm/year) • Biotic Factors • Deciduous trees and other flowering plants • Squirrels and weasels • Many insects and small birds • Mice and Deer • Black bears

  9. Temperate Deciduous Forest

  10. Tundra

  11. Tundra • Abiotic Factors • Low temperatures most of the year • Short growing season • Permafrost layer below soil (which is poor) • Low precipitation (~25 cm per year) • Biotic Factors • Low Diversity • Rapid-flowering plants • Mosses and lichens • Caribou, lemmings, and ptarmigan • Arctic fox, wolverines, and polar bear

  12. Tundra

  13. Grassland

  14. Grassland • Abiotic • Long growing season • Warmer than tundra and boreal forest • Rich, fertile soil • Precipitation (25 – 75 cm per year) • Biotic • Grasses • Grasshoppers • Snakes and hawks • Voles and mice • Bison and coyotes

  15. Grasslands

  16. Mountain Forest

  17. Mountain Forest • Abiotic • Temperature varies with elevation • Cool summers, warm winters • Windy conditions • Heavy precipitation on leeward side of mountains • Biotic • Ferns and large coniferous trees • Black and grizzly bears • Cougars • Elk • Squirrels and marmots

  18. Mountain Forest

  19. Aquatic Ecosystems • There are two main classifications of aquatic ecosystems • Freshwater • Includes rivers, lakes, marshes, etc... • Marine (or salt water) • Includes oceans, coral reefs, mangroves, estuaries, etc...

  20. Freshwater • Lakes and ponds are classified based on their nutrient levels • Oligotrophic • Small amounts of nutrients • Deep/clear lakes • Low biodiversity • Eutrophic • Lots of nutrients • Shallow marshes/ponds • High biodiversity

  21. Watersheds • An area of land where water flows through to reach a river or lake • If a watershed becomes polluted (eg: pesticide use), the pollutants flow into the lake/river

  22. Marine Ecosystems • Most of the life in the oceans exists near the coasts, where the nutrients are rich • Coral Reefs • In warm, shallow water • High biodiversity • Mangroves • Tropical shorelines • Tree roots grow down into water • Protects shoreline from erosion

  23. Estuaries • Estuaries are partially enclosed bodies of water where freshwater and salt water meet • Gulf of St. Lawrence is the largest estuary • Estuaries are extremely nutritious • Large biodiversity • Shellfish are supported here

  24. Gulf of St. Lawrence

  25. Intertidal Zone • Ocean coastlines often switch between aquatic and terrestrial • Because the tides go in and out • The species that live here are extremely tough • They have to survive harsh changes in conditions regularly • Sea urchins, barnacles, sea stars, and seaweed

  26. Intertidal Zone

  27. Homework • Pg 59 # 1 – 6 Terrestrial Biomes • Pg 62 # 1 – 7 Aquatic Ecosystems