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Changing the Contexts and Texts of Teacher Education in Pakistan. Naeem Ahmed Senior Research Coordinator, Pre-STEP USAID Joint Secretary, PARE November 23, 2010 WERA Symposium, Malaysia. Status of Education in Pakistan. Afflicted with innumerable problems
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Changing the Contexts and Texts of Teacher Education in Pakistan Naeem Ahmed Senior Research Coordinator, Pre-STEP USAID Joint Secretary, PARE November 23, 2010 WERA Symposium, Malaysia
Status of Education in Pakistan • Afflicted with innumerable problems • UNDP report (2004) has given Pakistan the lowest index score of any country outside Africa • Adult literacy rate is below 50% with less than one third of women who are barely literate • Inadequate government investment • Outdated curricula and materials • Weak institutional infrastructure, and • Shortage of qualified teachers and poor teacher training • Requires massive inputs in terms of planning, monitoring, materials and human resources
Education Sector Reforms • launched in December 2003 and were projected to cost $7.2 billion from 2004-18 • The five year Pre-Service Teacher Education Program (Pre-STEP) supports programs and reforms being undertaken by the Ministry of Education (MOE) and Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan. • The program is funded by USAID and is being implemented by AED in partnership with EDC. • During the period October 2008 through September 2013, Pre-STEP will focus on the improvement of Pre-Service Teacher Education in Universities and Government Colleges throughout Pakistan
Purpose • To report a countrywide base line Survey that was conducted by Pre-STEP research team in 2009 • To highlight the different activities undertaken by Pre-STEP during the last 2 years of its operation. • To share the progress of PARE during last two years, and • To describe how those activities are changing the contexts and texts of teacher education in Pakistan
Base line data collection • Teacher education managers in BOCE, PITEs/RITEs, and teachers & students in 14 FoE & 41 GCETs were surveyed & interviewed to analyze the situation and needs of those institutions. • Information on people’s perceptions of progress in five policy areas was also collected including: • implementation and recognition of 2-year ADE; • 4-year B.Ed. program; • teacher certification; • teachers’ pay and grade scales relevant to skills and education, and • subject specific teaching standards.
Data Management • The combination of various survey tools and focus group interviews provides a rich set of data that is presented in four major themes that are aligned with Pre-STEP aims and objectives. 1) A summary of observations and surveyors’ grading of various aspects of the learning and teaching in the GCETs; 2) Grading by faculty members and students of the general quality in institutions that they attend/teach in (both universities and colleges); 3) A summary of focus group discussions on the learning environment and faculty members’ aspirations for their own development in universities, and 4) Perceptions of respondents on the implementation status of teacher education policies
Findings • Diversified teacher education structure in the country • The total number of students enrolled in the 41 surveyed GCETs was 4815, comprising 2931women and 1884 men • Merely 40% of the visited classrooms were fully-functional, with sufficient lighting, a blackboard in good condition, sufficient furniture, chalk and enough charts and teaching aids as needed • Twenty Four (58.6%) of the 41 GCETs surveyed have labs, but only eight GCETs (19.6%) have labs that were considered fully functional. • The internet and email were reported to be available only in 2 two GCETs
Findings…Continued • Out of a total of 103 classes observed, in 67 classes (65%) the teacher educators (TE) had no lesson plans. • Several of the GCETs visited do not arrange for students to visit schools. Instead, students do micro-teaching and in some cases school students visit GCETs. • In only three classes (2.9%), the TE qualified for the highest rating • There is no role for GCET faculty in the core curriculum design (38 GCETs) • In more than 80 % of the classes, the TE was using the lecture method: there were no handouts, work sheets, or references for additional reading • More than 66% of the current Faculty members in the Pre-STEP target FoEs are below the age of 45.
Findings on feasibility of new degree programs • The respondents focused on three main concerns; • no assurance of employment after completion of the academic program; • availability of easier and cheaper options which would serve to dissuade students from accepting the proposed changes, and • the long academic duration which would delay their ability to generate needed income
Agenda for change • The menu of proposals provided by the respondent is not unachievable • Phasing out PTC, CT & one year B.Ed program by 2012 • Introduction of new 2 years ADE and 4 year B.Ed program in all GCETs & FoE • Capacity Building of EM & TE in strategic planning, innovative teaching & research methods • Compulsory teacher certification • Higher pay grades for teachers for graduates of ADE & B.Ed • Political will and strong communication among all stakeholders • Ownership drive for the reform agenda
Achievements during last two years • Revised curriculum for proposed degree programs • ADE is being started at 10 colleges and 7 uni • Initial year scholarship for students • Higher pay grades for teachers is notified • 18 training workshops on research and teaching methods • 15 ((109) research grants awarded for FoE • Infrastructure rehabilitation of 8 partner Universities • Short course for Teacher Education managers • Up to 4% of GDP will be allocated from 2011 for education
Ray of hope • Pre-STEP hopes that at the end of the program in 2013, when the same survey is administered again in the GCETs and universities, both students and teachers would give various aspects of quality a significantly improved rating. Thank you