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Review for Midterm 1. CPSC 321 Computer Architecture Andreas Klappenecker . Administrative Issues. Office hours have been moved: Wednesday October 15 and 22 canceled Thursday October 16 and 23 @ 2:00pm-3:00pm Talk by Bjarne Stroustrup today @ 4:10pm, HRBB 124. Reading Assignments.

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review for midterm 1

Review for Midterm 1

CPSC 321 Computer Architecture

Andreas Klappenecker

administrative issues
Administrative Issues
  • Office hours have been moved:
    • Wednesday October 15 and 22 canceled
    • Thursday October 16 and 23 @ 2:00pm-3:00pm
  • Talk by Bjarne Stroustrup
    • today @ 4:10pm, HRBB 124
reading assignments
Reading Assignments
  • Chapter 1,2,3,4, Appendix B
    • How does the algorithm work?
    • What is the complexity of the algorithm?
    • Work some examples
    • Get familiar with number representations
    • Assembly programming, the gory details
    • Combinatorial circuits
    • Read keyword list first, then the chapter
early history
Early History
  • 1938 Zuse’s Z1
    • electromechanical, experimental
  • Zuse’s Z2 almost identical to Z1
  • 1941 Zuse’s Z3
    • first reliable, freely programmable computer
    • memory based on relays
    • did not have stored program concept
    • Turing-complete
early history5
Early History
  • 1943-44 Mark 1 Colossus
    • memory based on vacuum tubes
    • special purpose machine, not Turing complete
    • but it had some flexibility
    • used in Bletchley Park to break the fish cipher
early history6
Early History
  • 1944 Harvard Mark I by Aiken and team
    • decimal number system
    • memory based on relays
  • 1945 ENIAC by Eckert and Mauchly
    • memory based on vacuum tubes
  • 1945 von Neumann et al.
    • introduce the stored program principle
    • incorporated in EDVAC design
questions
Questions
  • How was the memory of xyz realized?
  • Was xyz Turing-complete?
  • Who designed xyz?
mips assembly language
MIPS Assembly Language
  • Complete a template program
  • What does the code fragment do?
  • Stack usage for recursive procedures
    • know every nut, bolt and screw
    • slightly different skills needed
  • Know your [pseudo]instructions
    • Is blt a,b,c an instruction?
mips addressing modes
MIPS Addressing Modes
  • Immediate addressing
  • Register addressing
  • Base displacement addressing
  • PC-relative addressing
    • address is the sum of the PC and a constant in the instruction
  • Pseudo-direct addressing
    • jump address is 26bits of instruction concatenated with upper bits of PC
addressing modes
Addressing Modes
  • Register Addressing
    • add $s1, $s2, $s3
    • $s1 = $s2 + $s3
  • Immediate Addressing
    • addi $s1, $s2, 100
    • $s1 = $s2 + 100
addressing modes12
Addressing Modes
  • Base addressing
    • lw $s1, 100($s2)
    • $s1 = Memory[$s2+100]
  • PC-relative branch
    • beq $s1, $s2, 25
    • if ($s1 == $s2) goto PC + 4 + 100
addressing modes13
Addressing Modes
  • Pseudo-direct addressing
    • j 1000
    • goto 1000
    • concatenate 26bit address with upper bits of the PC
  • Study section 3.8 for further details
  • In particular, get used to Figure 3.18
arithmetic
Arithmetic
  • Know how to add and subtract
  • Know when overflow occurs
  • Be able to construct an ALU
    • or something like that
  • Carry lookahead
idea of carry lookahead
Idea of Carry Lookahead

cout=ab+cin(a xor b)

=ab+acin+bcin

=ab+(a+b)cin

= g + p cin

Generate

g = ab

Propagate

p = a+b

carry lookahead
Carry Lookahead

Iterate the idea, generate and propagate

ci+1 = gi + pici

= gi + pi(gi-1 + pi-1 ci-1)

= gi + pigi-1+ pipi-1ci-1

= gi + pigi-1+ pipi-1gi-2 +…+ pipi-1 …p1g0

+pipi-1 …p1p0c0

Two level AND-OR circuit

Carry is known early!

booth s multiplication
Booth’s Multiplication
  • Looking at 2 bits of multiplier
  • If the bits are
    • 00 => do nothing
    • 10 => beginning run of 1’s: subtract
    • 01 => end of run of 1’s: add
    • 11 => do nothing
booth s multiplication18
Booth’s Multiplication
  • Multiply 0010 by 0110 = 00001100

0000

00100 sub [= add 11111100]

000000

0010000 add [= add 00010000]

0001100

floating point
Floating Point
  • Know the IEEE 754 representation
    • sign bit s
    • exponent E with 8 bits
    • significand S with 23 bits
    • bias 127
    • (-1)s x (1+S)x2(E-127)
  • Given: 32 bits, interpret
  • Know all conversions
final remarks
Final Remarks
  • Use exercises at end of chapter to check knowledge
  • Answers are usually easy to figure out with the help of the text
  • Do not cheat! Read the text carefully, then attempt to solve the problems
  • Appendices A and B are useful bedtime reading
  • There is a need for speed!