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Chapter 19 Section 3 Americans on the European Front. Draftees and Volunteers Selective Service Act - May 1917 authorizing a draft of young men for military service

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Chapter 19 section 3 americans on the european front

Chapter 19 Section 3 Americans on the European Front

  • Draftees and Volunteers

  • Selective Service Act- May 1917 authorizing a draft of young men for military service

  • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) - November 1918 24 million men were signed up for the draft 3 million men were picked for the draft volunteers and National Guardsmen made this up

  • 11,000 women volunteered to serve as nurses, drivers and clerks

  • 14,000_ women served abroad as civilians working for the government or private agencies

  • Training for War

  • In September draftees went to basic to learn how to bayonet a rifle, dig a trench, put on a gas mask and throw a grenade.

  • They learned German Crimes and strategies of Trench Warfare

  • They did not receive much training because America tried to get soldiers into France

  • The Convoy System

  • May 1917 all merchant and troop ships traveled in Convoy

  • Convoy group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats and other armed naval vessels equipped with hydrophones to track and destroy submarines

  • Between April and December 1917 merchant marine losses dropped by half

  • Successful U-boats did not sink a single U.S. troopship traveling to Europe

  • American Soldiers in Europe

  • AEF arrived in France in June 1917

  • Perishing view- Allies became too accustomed to defensive action; he wanted to save his men’s strength for offensive moves

  • American soldiers brought strength, good health, and energy to the trenches

  • They were called Dough boys

  • 300,000 African Americans fought in segregated units but most never saw action

  • Marines did not take African Americans, the navy used them as menial tasks only and the army used them for manual labor

  • 369th Infantry known as the Harlem Hell Fighters persuaded white officers to loan them to the French, they revived France’s highest combat medal, the Croix de Guerre

  • Turning the Tide of the War

  • After Russia withdrew from the war Germany concentrated all of their forces on the Western Front

  • March 21, 1918 Germany attacked British lines and advanced deep into Allied territory

  • By May they were only about 50 miles from Paris

  • Americans Save Paris

  • General Pershing dispatched troops to the front

  • American troops attacked and recaptured the village of Cantigny on May 28

  • A week later Marine’s stopped German attacks on Belleau Wood and Château-Thierry

  • Lost half the troops but saved Paris

  • Mid July Germans launched a massive attack on French positions at the River of the Marne 28,000 Americans helped force the Germans to the other side of the river into retreat.

  • Ended German hopes for victory

  • Allied Counter attack

  • 250,000 Americans were arriving in Europe every month

  • The tank allowed soldiers to cross into No Mans Land this caused a break in German lines

  • August 8 the battle of Amiens allied armies stopped the German advance in the north and recaptured German gains from the pervious year

  • General von Ludendorff advised Kaiser Wilhelm to seek peace settlements

  • September troops hit final German strongholds

  • St. Mihiel was the first all American battle; this was successful

  • September 26, 1918 the final allied assault Meuse-Argonne Offensive caused Germany to go into a full retreat from the Argonne Forest and the region of the Meuse River

  • War in the Air

  • Airplanes were used in war; they were wooden, covered in cloth and had an open cock pit

  • Air battles were fought with pistols and later with machine guns

  • Zeppelins floating airships and German bombers launched more then 100 raids on London killing 1,500 civilians

  • Ending the War

  • The Central Powers Broke down

  • Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire made peace treaties with the Allies

  • Austria-Hungary splintered in October as Poles, Hungarians, Czechs and Slovaks declared independence

  • Germany begged for peace when fighting was brought on German soil

  • British Navy dominated the sea

  • November 10 Kaiser fled to Holland

  • A civilian representative of the New German Republic signed an Armistice or cease fire

  • In a French Railroad car at 5:00 A.M. November 11, 1918 it was signed six hours later guns fell silent