ADJECTIVE/ RELATIVE CLAUSES We use adjective clauses (also called relative clauses) to identify or give additional information about nouns (people, places, or things) It is placed in a sentence right after the noun they describe.
He plays in Twilight movie. The man is very handsome. The man who plays in Twilight movie is very handsome.
She sings country music. The girl is very cute. The girl who sings country music is very cute.
Adjective Clauses/ Relative clauses who relative pronoun whom which that whose where when
OVERVIEW Sentences with adjective clauses can be seen as combination of two sentences. I have a friend. + She loves to shopI have a friend who loves to shop.
WHO • Who and Whom are used only for people. • Who is used as the subject of the clause. • After who you should see a verb.
WHO The lady is my mentor. She teaches in English Department. The lady who teaches in English department is my mentor.
WHOM • Whom is used as the object or object of preposition of the clause. • After whom you should see a noun or pronoun.
WHOM The new studentwhom he knewarrived yesterday. (Relative pronoun as the object of the clause) The student to whom he spoke was a foreigner. (Relative pronoun as the object of a preposition)
The new student whomhe knewarrived yesterday. The new student arrived yesterday. He knew him/ her. • The student to whom he spoke was a foreigner. The student was a foreigner. He spoke tohim/ her.
WHICH Which is used only for thingswhich can be both subject and object of the clause. The telephone is ringing. The telephone is in your room. The telephone which is in your room is ringing.
THAT • That is used for both people and things. (less formal than whom and which). • That can be both subject and object of the clause. The ring that Jamie wears is from her husband. The lion that escaped last night was captured.
The ring that Jamie wears is from her husband. The ring is from her husband. Jamie wears it. • The lion that escaped last night was captured. The lion was captured. It escaped last night.
WHOSE Whose is the possessive and is used for both people and things and must be followed by a noun. Whose + noun can be subject or objectI heard the scientist whose workis attracting interest.I met the scientist whose workI admire.
I heard the scientist whose workis attracting interest. I heard the scientist. His work is attracting interest. • I met the scientist whose workI admire. I met the scientist. I admire his work.
Notes: The verb in the adjective clause is singular if the subject relative clause refers to a singular noun. It is plural if it refers to a plural noun. Ben is my friendwho lives in Boston.John and Alex are my friends wholive in Boston.
LET’S PRACTICE The boy is my friend. He lives down the street. >> The boy who lives down the street is my friend. Two news articles were written by my science professor. They appeared in the latest edition of Nova. >> Two news articles which appeared in the latest edition of Nova were written by my science professor. The Japanese food is sashimi.Keith likes it best. >>The Japanese food that Keith likes best is sashimi.
LET’S PRACTICE The people are very interesting.Maria works for them. The people whom Maria works for are very interesting. The TV newscaster is on channel 7.I trust her opinions most. The TV newscaster whose opinions I trust most is on channel 7.
Notes: whom – which – that - (0)can be the object of the preposition in its clause. If the preposition is at the beginning of the clause, whom or which must be used. In formal English we put the preposition at the beginning of the clause. Also, we use only whom not who or that to refer to people, and which not that to refer to things. He’s the writer for whom I work. >> formal He’s the writer whomI work for.That’s the book that I told you about.
She is a scientist.We agree with her. • She is a scientist whom we agree with. • She is a scientist with whom we agree.
WHERE Where modifies the noun place (country, city, building, house, room, street, and so on) • It cannot be a subject. • It can be omitted but a preposition (at, in, to) usually must be added. • I want to know the name of the city where you were born • The house where he stays is old . • The housein which he stays is old. • The house which he stays in is old. • The house that he stays in is old. • The house he stays in is old.
WHEN When modifies the noun time (century, year, day, night,) • It cannot be a subject. • It can be omitted • Your friend wants to know when you were born. • I will never forget the day when I graduated. • I will never forget the day on which I graduated. • I will never forget the day that I graduated. • I will never forget the day I graduated.
EXERCISES • The green sunglasses are on the table.They belong to Ms. Rice. • Many people watched the presidential speech. They did not watch American Idol. • The man lit the fire. He will serve at least 10 years. • Turin is a city in Italy. The 2006 Winter Olympics were held there. • The man goes to the police station. Her daughter is lost.
Punctuation of Adjective Clauses Adjective Clausescome in two types: restrictive and nonrestrictive
Adjective Clauses: Restrictive & Non-restrictive Clauses
My sister who lives in California is a doctor.The car that has broken headlights belongs to my brother. Restrictive adjective clausesidentify the noun or pronoun modified. They give information needed in order to know who or what the pronoun refers to.
Nonrestrictiveadjective clauses give extra information about the noun or the pronoun but is not needed to identify it. My sister, who lives in California, is a doctor.The Eiffel Tower has an elevator, which I rode to the top.
In nonrestrictive adjective clauses:Do not use the relative pronoun thatDo not omit the object relative pronounAlways put commas around a nonrestrictive clause
Adjective phrases : do not have a subject and do not have a verb. They can only be formed from clauses with subject relative pronouns.
The book which is written in Spanish is difficult.The book written in Spanish is difficult.Any students who are in this class can learn to speak English.Any students in this class can learn to speak English. To change an adjective clause with be to an adjective phrase, delete the subject relative pronoun and the form of be
People who live in big cities often see new movies.People living in big cities often see new movies To form an adjective phrase with a verb other thanBe, delete the subject relative pronoun and change the verb to its present participle (-ing) form
If an adjective clause is restrictive the adjective phrase is restrictive.If an adjective clause is nonrestrictive, the adjective phrase is nonrestrictive
Restrictive Adjective/Relative Clauses Examples: • The soccer player who scored the goal is from Liverpool. • The girl that borrows my bookis my cousin. • The district where I live is near thepost office.
Non- Restrictive Adjective/Relative Clauses Examples: • Ms. Tan, who is my English tutor, went to Korea last winter. • My dog, which is barking, is in the backyard. • William decided to reject the offer, which upset his manager.
Compare Restrictive & Non-restrictive Clauses 1. My brother who lives in Bukit Timah is an accountant. • This sentence suggests that I have more than one brother. “Who lives in Bukit Timah” identifies this brother, not the one who lives in Clementi. 2. My brother, who lives in Bukit Timah, is an accountant. • This sentence suggests that I only have one brother, “who lives in Bukit Timah”.
Which is logically correct? 1. My father, who is a taxi driver, doesn’t like to exercise. 2. My father who is a taxi driver doesn’t like to exercise.
Answer 1. My father, who is a taxi driver, doesn’t like to exercise. (Correct!) 2. My father who is a taxi driver doesn’t like to exercise. (This suggests you have more than one father!)
Which is logically correct? Situation: You have 3 sisters and you have already made that clear in preceding sentences. One is a doctor, one is an air stewardess, and one is a model. 1. My sister who is a doctor is not married. 2. My sister, who is a doctor, is not married.
Answer 1. My sister who is a doctor is not married. (Correct! This tells which sister , so it’s identifying.) 2. My sister, who is a doctor, is not married. (Identifying information should not have commas around it.)
Which is correct? 1. Paul Smith who is an excellent researcher is from England. 2. Paul Smith, who is an excellent researcher , is fromEngland.
Answer 1. Paul Smith who is an excellent researcher is from England. (Note that proper nouns are considered already identified, so the adjective clause needs commas.) 2. Paul Smith, who is an excellent researcher , is fromEngland. (Correct!)
Which is correct? • The wind, that is howling, is making me nervous. • The wind, which is howling, is making me nervous.
Answer • The wind, that is howling, is making me nervous. (Never use commas with a “that” clause.) 2. The wind, which is howling, is making me nervous. (Correct!)
The Robbed Bank This is the bank (1) ............… was robbed yesterday. A boy (2)............… sister is in my class was in the bank at that time. The man (3)............… robbed the bank had two pistols. He wore a mask … made him look like Mickey Mouse. He came with a friend (4).........… waited outside in the car. The woman … gave him the money was young. The bag (5)........… contained the money was yellow. The people (6).........… were in the bank were very frightened. A man (7).........… mobile was ringing did not know what to do. A woman (8)..........… daughter was crying tried to calm her. The car (9)............… the bank robbers escaped in was orange. The robber (10)..........… mask was obviously too big didn't drive. The man (11) ............… drove the car was nervous. He didn't wait at the traffic lights (12)...........… were red. A police officer (13)...........… car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.