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POLYMERS A guide for GCSE students. 2010 SPECIFICATIONS. KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING. POLYMERS. INTRODUCTION

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slide1

POLYMERS

A guide for GCSE students

2010 SPECIFICATIONS

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

slide2

POLYMERS

INTRODUCTION

This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards.

Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board.

Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at...

www.knockhardy.org.uk

All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

slide3

POLYMERS

  • CONTENTS
  • What is polymerisation?
  • Types of polymerisation
  • Addition polymerisation of ethene
  • Other polymerisation examples
  • Sources of monomers
  • Disposal of polymers
  • Questions

For more detailed information on fractional distillation, cracking and the properties of hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes, see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site.

www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htm

slide5

POLYMERISATION

A process in which small molecules called monomers join

together into large molecules consisting of repeating units.

slide6

POLYMERISATION

A process in which small molecules called monomers join

together into large molecules consisting of repeating units.

There are two basic types

slide7

POLYMERISATION

A process in which small molecules called monomers join

together into large molecules consisting of repeating units.

There are two basic types

ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer

examples poly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe

slide8

POLYMERISATION

A process in which small molecules called monomers join

together into large molecules consisting of repeating units.

There are two basic types

ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer

examples poly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe

CONDENSATIONmonomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules

not all the original atoms are present in the polymer

examples nylon, polyesters, pva

slide9

POLYMERISATION

A process in which small molecules called monomers join

together into large molecules consisting of repeating units.

There are two basic types

ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer

examples poly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe

CONDENSATIONmonomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules

not all the original atoms are present in the polymer

examples nylon, polyesters, pva

ALKENES UNDERGO ADDITION POLYMERISATION

slide10

POLYMERISATION

• during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction

• all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer

• long hydrocarbon chains are formed

slide11

POLYMERISATION

• during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction

• all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer

• long hydrocarbon chains are formed

slide12

POLYMERISATION

• during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction

• all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer

• long hydrocarbon chains are formed

• the diagram shows… the original monomer and

the repeating unit in the polymer

ethene poly(ethene)

MONOMER POLYMER

slide13

POLYMERISATION

• during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction

• all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer

• long hydrocarbon chains are formed

• the diagram shows… the original monomer and

the repeating unit in the polymer

the number of repeating units is the same as the number of original molecules

n represents a large number

ethene poly(ethene)

MONOMER POLYMER

slide14

POLYMERISATION

The animation shows the monomers turning into the polymer

slide15

OTHER POLYMERISATION REACTIONS

ETHENE

POLY(ETHENE)

PROPENE

POLY(PROPENE)

CHLOROETHENE

POLY(CHLOROETHENE)

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PVC

TETRAFLUOROETHENE

POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHENE)

PTFE “Teflon”

slide17

SOURCES OF MONOMERS

FROM CRUDE OIL

slide18

SOURCES OF MONOMERS

FROM CRUDE OIL

CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED

HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL

slide19

SOURCES OF MONOMERS

FROM CRUDE OIL

CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED

HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL

THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES

THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING

slide20

SOURCES OF MONOMERS

FROM CRUDE OIL

CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED

HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL

THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES

THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING

ETHENE

(an alkene)

slide21

SOURCES OF MONOMERS

FROM CRUDE OIL

CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED

HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL

THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES

THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING

ALKENES ARE AN IMPORTANT PRODUCT OF CRACKING

ETHENE (C2H4) IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ALKENE

ETHENE

(an alkene)

slide23

PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems.

slide24

PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems.

• they are unreactive to most chemicals

• they are unreactivetobacteria (non-biodegradable)

• if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem

slide25

PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems.

• they are unreactive to most chemicals

• they are unreactivetobacteria (non-biodegradable)

• if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem

OPTIONS

slide26

PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems.

• they are unreactive to most chemicals

• they are unreactivetobacteria (non-biodegradable)

• if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem

OPTIONS

recycling high cost of collection and re-processing

incinerate saves on landfill sites and produces energy but…

produces toxic fumes

Plastic bags are being made from polymers and

cornstarch so that they break down more easily

slide28

POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES

CAN YOU SPOT THE ORIGINAL ALKENE MONOMER?

slide29

POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES

CAN YOU SPOT THE ORIGINAL ALKENE MONOMER?

slide30

For more detailed information on FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION AND CRACKING, please see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site.

www.knockhardy.org.uk/gcse.htm

slide31

POLYMERS

THE END

©2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING