SOCIAL THEORY AND CITIZENSHIPQuestions for Session 1 1.What are the ‘common’ meanings of citizenship ? • How does T.H. Marshall devise his model of citizenship widely discussed in citizenship studies? • What are the weaknesses of T.H. Marshall’s model of citizenship? • How does Bryan S. Turner revise T.H. Marshall’s model of citizenship? • Does citizenship mean the ‘same thing’ for different people? If yes/no, why? • What is multiple citizenship? • The pluralization of citizenship have major implications. Why and how? • Can citizenship be totalized, for example, by reference to citizenships persons posses as members of a nation-state? • How does Bryan Turner consider the position of ‘citizenship’ in his model of citizenship?
Four Meanings of Citizenship (Roger M. Smith, 2002) • A citizen is a person with political rights to participate in the processes of popular self-governance (rights to vote; to hold elective appointive governmental offices; to serve on various sorts of juries; and to participate in political debates as equal community members, etc.); 2. In modern world, citizenship is a more purely legal status. Citizens are people who are legally recognized as members of a particular, officially sovereign political community; 3. In the last century, citizens refer to those who belong to almost any human association, whether a political community or some other groups (neighborhood*, fitness club*, university* and broader political community*), and 4. Citizenship signifies not just membership in some groups but certain standards of proper conducts. Contributors, not free-riders, are considered ‘true citizens’ of those bodies*
T.H. Marshall • Citizenship: A status bestowed on those who are full members of a community (including civil, political and social rights and obligations) Marshall’s definition of citizenship implies ‘multi-tier’, i.e. local, national, transnational. etc.
What is Citizenship? T. H. Marshall’s Model of Citizenship
T.H. Marshall’s Model of Citizenship • Civil rights: freedoms of speech, thought and faith and rights to property, contract and justice. • Political rights: the right to participate in public decisions and vote. • Social rights: rights to security and welfare and to share in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in the society. • Marshall emphasizes that the history of citizenship he is tracing is national rather than local in medieval cities. In the medieval period, these three types of citizenship were fused together and inseparable. He traces the evolution of civil rights through a series of legislation passed between 1688 and 1832 concerning the freedom of the individual. While political rights existed in the eighteenth century, they were far from universal. • Political rights were extended to those who, using their civil rights, has made economic gains and purchased property. Poor Laws and Factory Act (UK): State’s protection only when one abandoned one’s civil and political rights
T.H. Marshall’s Model of Citizenship – Some Weaknesses • Marshall argues that citizenship operated as an instrument of social stratification. The rise of social rights in the 18th century, but has made citizenship the architect of a new class inequality. Education became tied to occupation (professional, semi-professional and skilled labor). • Criticisms of Marshall’s Model: • Emphasis on how citizenship ameliorated class conflicts but not how citizenship rights were earned as a result of class struggles. • Historically citizenship emerged as a circuitous way, rather than in a linear fashion. • Focusing on pattern of inequality, but other forms of inequality such as gender, race, religion, language and ethnicity were not examined. • Assuming that rights are revolutionary. One obtains legal rights and wins political battle in democratic parliament. • One-dimensional analysis, ignoring division of active and passive citizenship.
Bryan S. Turner Citizenship: a collection of rights and obligations which give individuals a formal legal identity; these legal rights and obligations have been put together historically as sets of social institutions such as the jury systems, parliaments and welfare state.
Bryan S. Turner Sociological: institutions of citizenship, social identity, nature of equality and access to social-economic resources* (Marshall). Protection of individuals and groups from negative outcomes of the market in a capitalist society. *White Australian Policy = social closure (Fear of diversity); inclusion and exclusion of formal criteria within a political community Political: political rights, the state and individual (e.g. Rousseau’s social contract; Fichte’s science of rights)
What is Citizenship? A Revised Model of Citizenship (Bryan S. Turner, 1999)
Bryan S. Turner • Public/Private No longer use ‘from Subject to citizenship’ concept • Active/Passive Top-Down: e.g. German and many postcolonial states Turner’s pair-concepts of citizenship is Euro-centric (claimed to be universal (?)). It does not pay sufficient attention to ‘gender differences’; control and negotiation that take place in diferrent areas of social life
Differential Citizenship (Wayne Hudson 2000) A non-traditional approach to citizenship • Citizen is generally taken to be a member of something. A member of a city or community or a state or an empire or an association or a corporation. • Stress on exclusion and clear boundaries: who gives citizenship, who judges disputed cases, who is denied c, etc. • In practice, citizenship is not one thing that conceals the heterogeneous sites. Some forms of citizenship are specific to one site or particular membership (club, voluntary association, church, etc). • Others amount to exercises of capacity: those who do it are citizen in that domain. In other contexts citizenship implies a positive evaluation of behavior. • Citizenship is thus an ethic by which existing arrangements can be evaluated and judged.
Differential Citizenship • Multiple citizenship: not just dual, but many citizenships because of the consideration of race, gender, language, religion, etc. • Citizenship varies in different domains: local government, state, national, regional and international c. political v legal; social v cultural; economic, corporate and industrial c. • Different cases and terrains: sexual, educational, media, military, environmental, ecological and religious c. • So, citizenship is different on different sites and in different contexts and domains (varies with discourse and context); • Different citizenships involves multiple capacities; • Exercise of civic capacity do not fall under a single citizenship, and • Thus, citizenship cannot be totalized, especially for example, by reference to citizenships persons posses as members of a nation-state.
Differential Citizenship • The pluralization of citizenship has major implications because there are multiple conceptions, forms, and logics of citizenship. 1. Citizenship is different for different people in different contexts, depending on race, age, religion and gender. Some forms of citizenship are intrinsically heterogeneous. 2. Discursive forms of citizenship: the range of citizenships extends further because some forms of citizenship are simply hermeneutical. They arise with forms of interpretation • Differential citizenship recognizes multiple and irreducible types of citizenship negotiated by the exercises of multiple civic capacities • Good citizenship unleashes a large number of citizenship statuses which do not depend on membership of any particular nation-state (post-nationalist citizenship)
What is Citizenship? A Sociological Model of Citizenship (Bryan S. Turner) CITIZENSHIP RESOURCES IDENTITY CIVIC VIRTUE COMMUNITY
Review Questions 1. To what extent has Indonesian citizenship or citizenship education considered: • T.H. Marshall’s model of citizenship? How? • Bryan Turner’s revised model of citizenship? How? • Wayne Hudson’s ‘Differential Citizenship’ approach? How? • How does Indonesia’s law on citizenship handle issues of multiple citizenship? Do you think it has sufficiently coped with the needs in the global age? Why? 3. If you are supposed to teach school or university students, how would you inform them about issues of or approach to ‘differential citizenship’ and multiple citizenship in relation to the common practice of citizenship in Indonesia?
The Path to Modern Citizenship Ancient ‘Democratic’ Citizenship • Greek • Roman • Modern ‘Democratic’ Citizenship • Social contract • Enlightenment (Aufklarung) • Social Democratic Citizenship • Old social democracy • Contemporary Democratic Citizenship • Liberalism • Republicanism • Communitarianism • Radical Democratic Citizenship