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Walter Scott (1796-1861)

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  1. Walter Scott (1796-1861)

  2. Walter Scott • 1821-2 C. became acquainted with young Scot, Walter Scott (1796-1861). • Would become C’s closest fellow worker. • Educated at U. of Edinburgh. • To U.S. 1818; to Pittsburgh 1819. • Taught in school operated by George Forrester.

  3. Walter Scott • Forrester also preached for a Haldane church. • S. learned of Rest. Move. & was immersed. • When S. met C. 2 years later, he was already prepared to join in the work. • When C. began CB in 1823, was S. who suggested the name. • S. also wrote frequent articles.

  4. Walter Scott • S. made greatest contribution as evangelist of the Mahoning Association. • By 1823 C’s critics in Redstone Assoc. were bent on excommunicating him. • C. joined Mahoning Baptist Assoc. in the “Western Reserve” of Ohio. • Churches of Mahoning had been receptive--several discarding creed for the Bible.

  5. Walter Scott • Mahoning churches weren’t growing--1826 the 16 churches lost membership though population was growing. • 1827 Assoc. resolved to employ an evangelist to work among the churches. • At C’s suggestion, S. was selected.

  6. Walter Scott • Years earlier, S. read a tract teaching baptism for the remission of sins. • Written by Henry Errett, elder in Haldanean “church of Christ” in NY. • Made impression; evangelist role provided opportunity to put it into practice. • Faith, repentance, baptism, remission of sins, gift of HS--the “gospel restored.”

  7. Walter Scott • Result: great revival in Mahoning, but different from Cane Ridge. • None of emotionalism, exercises or continuous camp meetings. • S. preached that anyone could act on his faith and be immersed for remission of sins. • Hundreds responded.

  8. Walter Scott • Scott said that the steps to salvation were like pointing to the fingers on your hand— • Faith • Repentance • Baptism • Remission of sins • The gift of the Holy Spirit

  9. Walter Scott • When A.C. heard of revival, was concerned and sent his father to observe. • T.C. wrote back that though they had understood gospel correctly for years, it was now being put into practice for first time. • Mahoning Assoc. doubled within a year. • By 1830 was so transformed that it dissolved.

  10. Walter Scott • S’s “baptism for the remission of sins” provided C. movement with an essential it lacked--dynamic & successful evangelism. • Was an evangelism that emphasized reason rather than emotion-- • NT testimony rather than direct working of HS. • Was this evangelism which strained relations between C’s “reformers” and Baptists to breaking point.

  11. Walter Scott • S. made many other contributions. • Preached 30 more years, often with eloquence few could equal. • Edited several journals, including the Evangelist (1832-1842). • 1836 served as first pres. of Bacon College in Georgetown, KY (first brotherhood college). • But his unique legacy was proclamation of baptism for remission of sins, “gospel restored.”

  12. The Separation • Tension between “reformers” and Baptists led to breaking point between 1827 and 1830. • Actually, a gradual process and began earlier. • As early as 1823, Redstone had wanted to excommunicate C. • 1825 Redstone refused to seat any church which didn’t accept Philadelphia Confession of Faith.

  13. The Separation • 1826 Redstone divided as 10 churches withdrew from 13 others that stood with “reformers.” • This the 1st occasion of an Association taking action against the “reformers.” • But this was just the beginning.

  14. The Separation • In KY, several Baptist associations divided. • 1827 North District Association charges brought against “one of the preachers” without naming him. • Charges trivial compared to real differences. • When charges read, Raccoon John Smith jumped to his feet and said, “I plead guilty to them all.”

  15. Raccoon John Smith (1784-1868)

  16. The Separation • Bitter debate ensued; charges tabled for a year. • 900 baptisms that year, most by Raccoon, and “reformers” took firm control. • 1831 Assoc. dissolved itself like Mahoning had done a year earlier.

  17. The Separation • One of most imp. events of the separation came in 1829, when the Beaver Assoc. (western PA) adopted an “Anathema” condemning Campbell & Mahoning Assoc. • B. Anathema pub. in many Baptist journals. • Served as pattern by other assoc. in withdrawing from “reformers.” • Errors condemned provide summary of differences.

  18. Beaver Anathema • They, the Reformers, maintain that there is no promise of salvation without baptism. • That baptism should be administered to all who say they believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, without examination on any other point. • That there is no direct operation of the Holy Spirit on the mind prior to baptism.

  19. Beaver Anathema • That baptism procures the remission of sins and the gift of the Holy Spirit. • That no creed is necessary for the church but the Scriptures as they stand.

  20. The Separation • The C’s 17-year marriage with Baptists precarious at best. • When divorce came, either party might have been charged with considerable mental cruelty. • Union decidedly to “reformers” advantage--had allowed C. to sow his tares among the Baptist wheat.

  21. The Separation • Scores of preachers, many churches, and even entire associations had accepted C’s call and Scott’s evangelism. • Baptists saw major surgery necessary but was hard to separate tares from wheat. • When divorce was final after 1830, instead of Brush Run Church, C. move. had churches scattered over several states with well over 10,000 members, many ex-Baptists.

  22. The Movements Converge • Separation from Baptists prepared way for next event--uniting of S. & C. movements. • Movements spread thru same areas. • Kentucky • Campbell vs. Maccalla, 1823. • 1824 C. visited and met Stone. • Christian Baptist soon had large circulation in KY. • Ohio • 3 “Christian” preachers present when Scott appointed. • Joseph Gaston & others began preaching “gospel restored.”

  23. The Movements Converge • Similarities-- • Both accepted scripture as sole authority and denied binding authority of creeds. • Pleaded for unity on basis of a return to Bible. • Reacted against doctrines of predestination and limited atonement. • Rejected infant sprinkling and practiced immersion of believers.

  24. The Movements Converge • Similarities (continued)-- • Both refused to wear unscriptural or sectarian names. • Both regarded denominational organizations such as presbyteries, synods and associations as unscriptural.

  25. The Movements Converge • Differences-- • They disagreed about names. • C. movement, though often called “reformers,” preferred to be called “Disciples.” • S. movement insisted on “Christian.” • Both names continued after uniting. • Hymn book (1835), The Disciples’ Hymn Book. • Name changed to The Christian Hymn Book after S’s protest.

  26. The Movements Converge • Differences (cont.)-- • Differed on emphasis placed on immersion. • S. practiced but did not insist on necessity. • S.--(baptism or remission of sins “had not generally obtained amongst us, though some few had received it and practiced accordingly.” • As result of disagreement, differed over communing with unimmersed. • S. willing; C. not.

  27. The Movements Converge • Differences (cont.)-- • Lord’s Supper. • S.--“They insisted also upon weekly communion,” • “which we had neglected.”

  28. The Movements Converge • Differences (cont.)-- • Both evangelistic, but methods different. • S. preachers stressed emotional and encouraged sinners to “weep & mourn as they sought salvation.. • S. stressed HS in conversion & feared Disciples were not explicit enough on HS’s influence. • C. & Scott stressed role of reason. • Faith seen as act of the reason more than the emotion and was defined as acceptance of NT message the Jesus was the Messiah.

  29. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • Similarities far outweighed differences. • After 1830 leaders of both groups began to consider unity. • S., 1831: “The question is going the round of society, and is often proposed to us, ‘Why are not you and the Reformed Baptists one people?’ or, ‘Why are you not united?’ We have uniformly answered, ‘In spirit we are united.’”

  30. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • Campbell--“I think the question of union and cooperation is one which deserves the attention of all them who believe the ancient gospel and desire to see the ancient order of things restored.”

  31. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • Both stressed autonomy of each local church, so unity had to come by congregations extending fellowship or merging. • 1st merger, Millersburg, KY, April 24, 1831. • Church from each movement there. • Agreed were “one as far as faith and practice” and began meeting together.

  32. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • John T. Johnson perhaps did more to bring unity than any other. • KY preacher with C. movement. • (1788-1856), a lawyer who had served two terms in Congress, 1820-1824. • Brother, Richard M. Johnson, became V.P. of US. • A. C: “Sir, in descending from the forum and legislative hall to proclaim the crucified Savior, you have ascended far above all earthly crowns.”

  33. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • Johnson & BWS both lived in Georgetown, KY and were warm friends. • Nov. 1831 S. preached at J’s Great Crossing church & discussed unity. • Raccoon John Smith & John Rogers joined discussions and the 4 called a general meeting to see if members of two groups desired unity.

  34. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • Two meetings held. • Georgetown, 12/23-26/1831. • Lexington, New Year’s weekend, 1832. • Raccoon: “Let us, then, my brethren, be no longer Campbellites or Stoneites, New Lights or Old Lights, or any other kind of lights, but let us come to the Bible and to the Bible alone, as the only book in the world that can give us all the light we need.”

  35. The Movements Converge • Unity achieved. • Raccoon & BWS shook hands. • Several steps taken to encourage unity. • Raccoon (Disciple) & John Rogers (Christian) travelled together in KY. • BWS invited John T. Johnson to become associate editor of the Christian Messenger (begun 1826).

  36. Raccoon John Smith (1784-1868)

  37. “Raccoon” John Smith • Nickname given after a sermon at Tate’s Creek Baptist Association at Crab Orchard, Kentucky ca. 1815. • “I am John Smith, from Stockton’s Valley. In more recent years, I have lived in Wayne, among the rocks and hills of the Cumberland. Down there, saltpeter caves abound, and raccoons make their homes. On that wild frontier we never had good schools, nor many books; consequently, I stand before you today a man without an education.”

  38. “Raccoon” John Smith • S. has been called the Peter Cartwright and Lorenzo Dow of the Restoration Movement. • A. C.: “John Smith is the only man that I ever knew who would have been spoiled by a college education.” • Born 10/15/1784 in the state of Franklin, later to become Sullivan County, TN. • His father, a Rev. War veteran, later settled his family in the Cumberland River region of Kentucky.

  39. “Raccoon” John Smith • Late in 1814 S. bought land near Huntsville, AL. • S., away preaching, his wife caring for a sick neighbor, lost two of his children when their cabin burned. • His wife mourned herself to death; in a matter of months S. sold his farm and returned to Kentucky.

  40. “Raccoon” John Smith • March 1822 suddenly stopped preaching: “Brethren, something is wrong—I am in the dark,--we all are in the dark; but how to lead you to the light, or to find the way myself, before God, I know not.” • As S. searched, A. C. began publishing the Christian Baptist and S. became an eager subscriber. • S. first met A. C. in Flemingsburg, KY.

  41. “Raccoon” John Smith • After listening to C. preach, S. said, “Is it not hard, brother Billy, to ride twenty miles, as I have done, just to hear a man preach thirty minutes?” • “You are mistaken, brother John; look at your watch. It has surely been longer than that.” • When S. looked, he found Campbell had preached two hours and thirty minutes. Two hours were gone and he knew not where.

  42. Raccoon John Smith Cabin Monticello, KY

  43. In Memory Of JOHN SMITH An Elder Of The Church of Christ Born Oct. 15, 1784 Died Feb. 29, 1868 True, genial and pious,  the goodloved, and all respected  him. Strong through affliction and wise  in the study of God's word. He gave up the creed of  his fathers for the sake of  that word. By its power he turned many from error.   In the light hewalked  & in its consolation he  triumphantly died. __________ In his sacrificesand  service.  Hiscompanion  shared. She gave her life to God & her death was precious in his sight. _________________ NANCY SMITH Born Nov. 15, 1792 Died Nov. 4, 1861

  44. John Rogers (1800-1867)

  45. John Rogers (1800-1867)