chapter 27 empire and expansion
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Chapter 27 “ Empire and Expansion ”. “ Expand or Explode ”.

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expand or explode
“Expand or Explode”

From the end of the Civil War to the 1880s, the United States was very isolationist, but in the 1890s, due to rising exports, manufacturing capability, power, and wealth, it began to expand onto the world stage, using overseas markets to send its goods.

Safety Valve Theory

“Yellow Journalism” – Hearst and Pulitzer

Anglo-Saxon Superiority

Aggressive leadership – Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge

Darwinism – Survival of the fittest

Alfred Thayer Mahan – “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History”

“Keeping up with the Joneses” - other countries were doing it why cant we?

A cartoon showing the U.S. growing up and growing girth. Illustration from "The Forbidden Book" by T'boli Publishing, San Francisco.
william randolph hearst
William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst

Hearst Castle

alfred thayer mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan

Alfred Thayer Mahan

violations of the monroe doctrine
Violations of the Monroe Doctrine
  • British Guiana and Venezuela had been disputing their border for many years, but when gold was discovered, the situation worsened.
  • U.S. Sided with Venezuela and told Great Britain they were in violation of the Monroe Doctrine and threatened them with war.
  • Britain backed down
  • The result was that the Monroe Doctrine was strengthened, and Britain sought better relations with the U.S. afterwards, since it had many enemies in Europe (Great Reproachment)
  • Strategic port for the U.S. Between America and Asia.
  • In 1820 New England missionaries settled in Hawaii.
  • Sugar cultivation went sour in 1890 due to the McKinley Tariff. America moved to annex Hawaii.
  • In 1893 American troops landed on Hawaii and removed Queen Liliuakalani from power
  • Grover Cleveland became president, investigated the coup, found it to be wrong, and delayed the annexation of Hawaii until he left office.
  • Nine years later Hawaii was annexed.
  • 1st ever imperialistic debate in history
cubans rise in revolt
Cubans Rise in Revolt
  • Cuba controlled by Spanish
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff hurt Cuba’s production and sale of sugar
  • Cubans claimed Spanish atrocities – Cubans instituted a “scorched earth policy”
  • Spanish sent General “Butcher” Wayler and put Cubans in concentration camps
  • Cleveland against war – Anti-jingoist
  • Jingo – pro-war and pro expansion
mckinley and war
McKinley and War
  • Yellow Journalism – Hearst vs Pulitzer
  • Explosion of the Maine in Havana Harbor – 260 Americans dead.
  • Remington Paintings
  • De Lome Letter – Criticizing McKinley
  • American Demand for War
“The white-livered occupant of the White House doesn’t have the backbone of a chocolate éclair” – Theodore Roosevelt
spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • Teller Amendment - proclaimed that when the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom.
  • On February 25, 1898, Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey, commanding the American Asiatic Squadron at Hong Kong, and told him to take over the Philippines.
  • On August 13, 1898, American troops arrived and captured Manila, collaborating with Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
  • U.S. annexed Hawaiian July 7, 1898
  • The “Rough Riders,” a regiment of volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt and Colonel Leonard Wood, rushed to Cuba and battled at El Caney San Juan Hill.

Frederick Remington

treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • U.S. Obtained



Puerto Rico

Philippines – Paid $20 million

  • “Splendid Little War” – only 113 days with few deaths and a lot of territory won
  • U.S. emerged as a world power
  • Finally unity between North and South
anti imperialist debate
Anti-Imperialist Debate
  • Presidents of Stanford and Harvard
  • Mark Twain
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • “despotism abroad might well beget despotism at home”
  • 3 periods of imperialistic debate
    • Louisiana Purchase
    • Mexican Cession and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    • Spanish-American War
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Welcomed American Intervention
  • Poor country that appreciated help
  • Foraker Act – Passed in 1900 and gave Puerto Rico limited degree of popular government
  • Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens but they don’t vote and have no representation in Congress
  • America could not improve Cuba that much, other than getting rid of yellow fever with the help of General Leonard Wood and Dr. Walter Reed.
    • Platt Amendment - said that the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy, that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba, and that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay.
  • Insurrection against U.S. rule in Philippines led by former U.S. friend Aguinaldo
  • Guerilla warfare
  • U.S. set up school, built roads, bridges and hospitals
  • Filipinos desperately wanted their freedom
  • Future President William Howard Taft was the governor.
philippine american war
Philippine-American War
  • Filipino casualties on the first day of Philippine-American War, February 5, 1899. The original caption was, "Insurgent dead just as they fell in the trench near Santa Ana, February 5th. The trench was circular, and the picture shows but a small portion." The war lasted until 1913 and resulted in the colonization of the Philippine Islands by the United States.
imperialism in china
Imperialism in China
  • Famous French political cartoon from the late 1890s. A pie represents China and is being divided between caricatures of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, William II of Germany (who is squabbling with Queen Victoria over a borderland piece, while thrusting a knife into the pie to signify aggressive German intentions), Nicholas II of Russia, who is eyeing a particular piece, the French Marianne , and the Meiji Emperor of Japan, carefully contemplating which pieces to take. A stereotypical Chinese official throws his up his hands to try and stop them, but is powerless.
  • It is meant to be a figurative representation of the Imperialist tendencies of these nations towards China during the decade.
  • Weak militarily and had vast resources tht were not being utilized thus became a prime target for counties practicing imperialism
  • Countries such as Russia, Germany, Great Britain and Italy carved out “spheres of influence” in China
  • Open Door Policy – Sec of State John Hay wrote that countries must respect China’s cultural integrity
  • Boxer Rebellion – Many Chinese resented Hay’s policy and attempted to stop foreigner invasion so they rebelled and rioted in the streets of Bejing
  • Chinese government asked for help in stopping boxers
  • Multi-national force stopped them and charged China $300 million
  • U.S. share was $24.5 million but gave back $18 million
  • Set up good relations between U.S. and China

Multi-National force stopping the rebellion

election of 1900
Election of 1900

Republicans - William McKinley

Platform – prosperity, gold standard and overseas expansion

Democrats – William Jennings Bryan

Platform – free and unlimited coinage of silver, anti-imperialism and anti-Trust

death of mckinley
Death of McKinley

Shot by Leon Czolgosz

Funeral Procession

Robert Todd Lincoln, son of Abe Lincoln, was present at the assassinations of three Presidents: his father's, President Garfield's and President McKinley's. After the last shooting, he refused to attend any State affairs. He would not have been present at these events if it hadn't been for the brother of John Wilkes Booth, who saved his life years earlier.
theodore roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Youngest President in history of United States – Age 42
  • Big advocate of a strong military and naval preparedness
  • “Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.”
  • Big Stick = Navy (Great White Fleet)
  • Former Leader of the Roughriders
theodore roosevelt1
Theodore Roosevelt.
  • "It's not the critic who counts, not the man who points out how the strong man stumbled, or where the doers of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by the dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes short again and again...who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause, who at best, know in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat."
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • America saw a need for a canal.
    • Fast travel
    • Protection of Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Philippines
  • Two possible sites were Nicaragua and Panama
  • U.S. signed an agreement with the French to purchase the rights to dig the canal
  • Columbia, who owned Panama refused to lease land to U.S.
  • Roosevelt was angry so he instituted a coup by Panama against Columbia.
  • U.S. backed Panama and they won their freedom and signed an agreement with the U.S. allowing them to dig the canal.
  • Yellow fever was conquered by Dr. Gorgas
  • TR became 1st president to leave American soil and visit another country when he traveled to Panama
  • Canal finished in 1914
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
  • Theodore Roosevelt announced an addition to the Monroe Doctrine. He stated, in referring to South and Central America, that the United States had the right and the need to intervene in the internal affairs of states in the Western hemisphere if they did not get their own affairs in order.
  • The U.S. Declaration of Intervention
  • Preemptive intervention
russo japanese war
Russo-Japanese War
  • Russia and Japan fought a war after Russia attempted to take over Manchuria in China
  • Japan was close to victory but was dangerously close to running out of supplies
  • Japan secretly asked U.S. and TR to broker a peace agreement
  • 1905 Russia, Japan and TR met at Portsmouth New Hampshire and signed a peace treaty
  • Both Russia and Japan unhappy with peace treaty
  • TR won Nobel Peace prize for stopping the war
  • U.S benefited because a strong Russia and a strong Japan were desirable for peace in the area
gentleman s agreement
Gentleman’s Agreement
  • After the war, many Japanese immigrants poured into California, and fears of a “yellow flood” arose again.
  • The showdown came in 1906 after the San Francisco earthquake when the city decreed that due to lack of space, Japanese children should attend a special school.
  • Gentleman’s Agreement – TR allowed Japanese children to attend American schools but forbade unskilled Japanese from entering the United States. Unskilled Japanese were able to settle in Hawaii.
  • To impress the Japanese, Roosevelt sent his entire battleship fleet around the world for a tour, and it received tremendous salutes in Latin America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan.
  • Great White Fleet
root takahira agreement
Root-Takahira Agreement
  • Signed on 30 November 1908, the agreement consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John Hay), maintenance of free trade and equal commercial opportunities, Japanese recognition of the American annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Philippines and American recognition of Japan's position in northeast China.
great white fleet
Great White Fleet
  • President Roosevelt, who believed in grand flourishes, dreamed up such a gesture to impress the world, and especially the Japanese, with American power. He planned to send the entire American battle fleet on a voyage around the world. Critics protested that it would provoke war, or alternately leave the American east coast unprotected.Roosevelt went ahead, and on December 16, a fleet of 16 American battleships set sail. They were met with a tumultuous response wherever they went -- including Japan. The trip underscored the growing power of the United States.
great white fleet in monterey
Great White Fleet in Monterey
  • With their white hulls and buff upper works, the battleships of the U.S. Navy must have looked much like a parade of gargantuan wedding cakes as they sailed into Monterey Bay on May 1, 1908. "Speak softly, but carry a big stick," was a favorite aphorism of President Theodore Roosevelt, a onetime Assistant Secretary of the Navy and staunch advocate of American sea power. He underscored the United States' status as a force to be reckoned with by sending 16 battleships of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet on a voyage around the world.