Protocols Syllabus outcomes 5.2.1 Describes and applies problem-solving processes when creating solutions. 5.2.2 Designs, produces and evaluates appropriate solutions to a range of challenging problems. 5.2.3 Critically analyses decision-making processes in a range of information and software solutions.
Internet Protocols A protocol is a set of rules that governs the transmission of data between computer devices. Some of the protocols used on the Internet include TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP and SMTP.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a common language for data transmission and error detection across the Internet. It works by breaking information into smaller packets of data. Each data packet contains the information and the address of the receiving computer. The TCP standards inform the receiving computer what is inside the data packet and the IP standard tells the computer where and how to send the packet. Each data packet might take a different route but eventually reaches the same destination where all the packets are reassembled into the original information.
HTTP Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is a standard for transferring the contents of a web page into a browser for viewing. HTTP is a one-way system as data is only transferred from the web server to the browser. Whenever ‘http’ appears in a URL the user is connecting to a web server and using the HTTP standard.
FTP File transfer protocol (FTP) is a standard to upload and download files. An FTP server is a computer that allows users to upload and download files using FTP. Whenever ‘ftp’ appears in a URL the user is connecting to a file server and not a web server.
Mail – SMTP and POP Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) is a standard for outgoing email. Most email messages are sent using SMTP. POP3 (Post Office Protocol) is a standard for incoming email.