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Imperialists Divide Nigeria and South Africa. 623-632 and 713-722. Historical background information:.

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historical background information
Historical background information:
  • The military genius Shaka built the Zulu kingdom out of the Nguni peoples. The Zulu were powerful warriors who expanded quickly by raiding neighboring tribes. The Swazi and Lesotho kingdoms formed as a protective response against the Zulu kingdom.
  • Muslims decided to stop tolerating paganism and added new lands through jihad, implementing Islamic law as they conquered more territory. The reformed Hausa states were united under the Sokoto Caliphate. Muslim states became centers of Islamic learning.
  • Sokoto’s leaders sold many captives into the Atlantic and Trans-Saharan slave trade, in addition to using slaves within the caliphate.
  • Mohammed Ali’s grandson, Ismail, westernized Egypt even further. He developed irrigation canals, railroads, and a postal service, and created a new capital at Cairo. However, through all of this he built up debts to France and Britain, and when the cotton market collapsed after the American civil war Egypt was partly occupied by these European forces.
  • David Livingstone was a missionary doctor that helped trace the course of the Zambezi River and the upper Congo River while scouting out locations for Christian missions. His expeditions displayed that European explorers would not be given trouble while travelling through Africa, and if they treated the natives well they would actually be received with warm hospitality.
historical background information1
Historical background information:
  • “Legitimate” trade refers to any trade besides slaves. As the Atlantic Slave Trade was being shut down, Africans were forced to increase their legitimate trade in order to continue trade with Europeans and receive imports such as cloth, metals, and other goods. They did this by reviving old exports and developing new ones. This can be seen especially well on the Gold Coast, where the amount of gold exported more than doubled between the late 18th and mid 19th centuries.
  • Tippu Tip, a trader from Zanzibar, created the largest personal empire and composed a memoir detailing his adventures in Africa. The modern rifles he and other Zanzibari traders used to kill elephants for their ivory tusks also brought great devastation to the once-peaceful heart of Africa.
  • As Egypt tried to modernize, it acquired debts to European countries. It sold shares of the Suez Canal to Great Britain in order to avoid bankruptcy.
  • The uprising threatened the Suez Canal, therefore Britain occupied Egypt for seventy years in order to protect their investments. Britain ruled Egypt indirectly. While in Egypt, they doubled the productivity of farmlands by building a dam across the Nile.
  • France hoped to extend their empire further into West Africa and build a railroad in order to open central Africa to FrenThe actions of Henry Morton Stanley, King Leopold II, and Savorgnan de Brazza led to the Congo Basin being placed under the “protection” of France.
  • The Berlin Conference of 1884 and 1885 divided Africa among European powers.
historical background information2
Historical background information:
  • Natives of central Africa were forced to work at gunpoint by private concession companies when they were unable to pay taxes. The public outcry against these abuses and the end of the rubber boom resulted in the Belgian government taking over Leopold’s private empire.
  • Cecil Rhodes was an important part of Britain occupying South Africa. The Ndebele and Shona people resisted as he pushed into central Africa, but they were no match for British machine guns.
  • The Natives Land Act of 1913 assigned Africans to reservations, forbidding them to own land elsewhere.
  • Africans were educated in missions schools.
  • “Ethiopian” churches combined Christianity with African values and customs.
slide5

What were the responses to imperialism within the region or country? Who were the individuals or groups that aided resistance within the country or region? When and how did your country or region gain independence?

  • Napoleon’s army invaded Egypt in May of 1978, however they had trouble maintaining power and eventually withdrew in 1801. This left Egypt open to the rise of Mohammed Ali. Mohammed Ali greatly modernized and westernized Egypt; strengthening the military, establishing schools, and creating the need for factories.
  • France and Britain convinced the Ottoman Empire to dethrone Ismail, provoking an uprising against foreign intervention.
  • Egyptian peasants did not benefit from British rule, the only one ones who did benefit were a group of elites mainly consisting of foreigners. Muslim religious leaders were offended by certain Western customs. Egyptian politicians and intellectuals began to demand that Britain allow Egypt to become independent.
  • Europeans were attracted to South Africa’s farmlands, diamonds, gold, copper, coal, and iron. Tensions between Afrikaners and British grew after Britain annexed the South African diamond area. Although the Zulu were defeated by the British and their lands were given to white ranchers, they maintained their sense of nationalism.
  • Africa’s societies were very diverse in terms of organization and past exposure to Europe, therefore each reacted differently to European imperialism. Some fought back while others welcomed the Europeans as allies.
  • Ethiopia was the only nation to successfully resist European rule when they defeated Italy in 1896.
  • Colonial rule disrupted traditional African life and displaced many natives, therefore it was impossible for Africans to try to ignore the foreign invaders and continue on in their lives as usual.
analyze the effects of imperialism from historical and modern day perspectives
Analyze the effects of imperialism from historical and modern day perspectives:

Egypt had already begun westernizing and modernizing itself without being controlled by a European power. Once Britain took indirect rule over Egypt, Egyptians became unhappy. British rule was not benefitting the Egyptian population, and the two cultures clashed.

Exposure to Europe corrupted the once peaceful Africa with violent weapons, segregation, oppression, and bitter divisions. Also, the farming out of lands to private companies resulted in inhumane abuses. As Europeans discovered more natural resources in Africa, they pushed natives out of their homelands. The natives didn’t stand a chance against modern weapons such as machine guns. Many natives were forced into reserves, and colonial rule disrupted Africans’ lives beyond the hope of continuing on as usual and ignoring the European invaders.

European imperialist powers’ invasions benefitted only themselves, and they completely ignored and oppressed the Africans.

slide7
Zulu

The Zulu kingdom was a very powerful kingdom established by the military genius Shaka. They entered into a war with Britain in 1879, with a victory at Isanhlwana, but were defeated a few months later. Despite their defeat, the Zulu maintained a strong sense of nationalism.

christian missionaries in ethiopia
Christian Missionaries in Ethiopia

This is St. George’s church, a church carved from bedrock in the Ethiopian highlands. Africans came into contact with Christian missionaries, who opened schools and preached throughout Africa, more than any other Europeans. “Ethiopian” churches combined Christianity with African traditions and values.