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Chapter 7 Qualitative Research. 授課教授:洪新原 教授 組員:蔣郭彥 602530032 沈國榮 602530040 蘇上方 602530044. Learning Objectives. Understand… How qualitative methods differ from quantitative methods. The controversy surrounding qualitative research.

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chapter 7 qualitative research
Chapter 7Qualitative Research

授課教授:洪新原 教授

組員:蔣郭彥 602530032

沈國榮 602530040

蘇上方 602530044

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Understand…
  • How qualitative methods differ from quantitative methods.
  • The controversy surrounding qualitative research.
  • The types of decisions that use qualitative methods.
  • The variety of qualitative research methods.
what is qualitative research
What Is Qualitative Research?
  • Managers basically do business research to understand how and why things happen.
  • If the manager needs to know only what happened, or how often things happened, quantitative research methodologies would serve the purpose.
what is qualitative research1

Group

Interviews

Focus Groups

Individual depth interviews

(IDIs)

Observation

Ethnography

Case Studies

Action Research

Grounded Theory

What Is Qualitative Research?

Data

Collection

Techniques

what is qualitative research2

Textual Analysis

Other

Techniques

Behavioral Observations

Artifacts

Trace Evidence

Debriefings

What Is Qualitative Research?
data sources
Data Sources
  • People(individuals or groups).
  • Organizations or institutions.
  • Texts(published, including virtual ones).
  • Settings and environments.
  • Objects, artifacts, media products.
  • Events and happenings.
qualitative vs quantitative research
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

The Roots of Qualitative Research:

Qualitative

Research

Economics

Psychology

Sociology

Semiotics

Anthropology

Communication

distinction between qualitative quantitative
Distinction betweenQualitative & Quantitative
  • Quantitative research is the precise count of some behavior, knowledge, opinion or attitude. While the survey is not the only quantitative method, it is the dominant one. Quantitative research is often used for theory testing.
  • Qualitative research is sometimes called interpretive research because it seeks to develop understanding through detailed description. It builds theory but rarely tests it.
the process of qualitative research
The Process of Qualitative Research
  • The process of developing a qualitative project is similar to the research process introduced in Chapter 1.
  • However, three key distinctions suggested in the previous sections do affect the research process:
the process of qualitative research1
The Process of Qualitative Research
  • The level of question development in the management-research question hierarchy prior to the commencing of qualitative research.
  • The preparation of the participant prior to the research experience.
  • The nature and level of data that come from the debriefing of interviewers or observers.
the process of qualitative research2
The Process of Qualitative Research

Exhibit 7-3 introduces the modifications to the research process.

pre tasking activities
Pre-tasking Activities
  • Much of qualitative research involves the deliberate preparation of the participant, called pre-tasking.
  • A variety of creative research and mental exercise draw participants’ understanding of their own though processes and ideas to the surface.
pre tasking activities cont
Pre-tasking Activities(cont.)
  • Use product in home:

e.g., a magazine – repeatedly over the preparation period before the interview.

  • Bring visual stimuli:

e.g., family photos of areas or rooms in their homes that they hate to clean.

  • Create collage:

e.g., taking pictures over several weeks, with one-time-use camera, of their

children’s favorite outfits for different purpose or situations out of magazine

that reflect how they feel when using a particular product.

pre tasking activities cont1
Pre-tasking Activities(cont.)
  • Keep diaries:

e.g., a record of their step-by-step experience preparing a meal using a

particular product.

  • Draw pictures:

e.g., what they felt like when they last shopped in a particular store.

  • Construct a story:

e.g., how a conversation between the participant and a sales associate

would progress when a complaint was not resolved.

qualitative research methodologies

Project’s purpose

Researcher characteristics

Schedule

Types of participants

Types of participants

Budget

Topics

Qualitative Research Methodologies

Factors

qualitative research methodologies1
Qualitative Research Methodologies
  • Qualitative research involves nonprobability sampling─where little attempt is made to generate a representative.
    • Purpose sampling:

Researchers choose participants arbitrarily for their unique characteristics or their experiences, attitudes. Researchers seek new participants to challenge emerging patterns.

qualitative research methodologies2
Qualitative Research Methodologies
  • Snowball sampling:

Participants refer researchers to others who have characteristics, experiences, or attitudes similar to or different from their own.

  • Convenience sampling:

Researchers select any readily available individuals as participants.

interviews
Interviews
  • The interview is the primary data collection technique for gathering data in qualitative methodologies.
  • An interview can be conducted in groups or individually.
  • Exhibit 7-5 compares the individual depth interview and the group interview as a research methodology. Both are important in qualitative research.
interview formats
Interview Formats
  • Unstructured interview
      • here are no specific questions or order of topics to be discussed.
  • Semi-structured interview
      • There are a few standard questions but the individual is allowed to deviate based on his or her answers and thought processes.
  • Structuredinterview
      • The interview guide is detailed and specifies question order, and the way questions are to be asked.
interviews formats cont
Interviews Formats(cont.)
  • The unstructured and semi-structured interviews used in qualitative research are distinct from the structured interview in several ways.
    • Rely on developing a dialog between interviewer and participant.
    • Require more interviewer creativity.
    • Use the skill of the interviewer to extract more and a greater variety

of data.

    • Use interviewer experience and skill to achieve greater clarity and

elaboration of answers.

interviewer responsibilities
Interviewer Responsibilities
  • The interviewers is a consultant with wide-ranging responsibilities:
    • Recommends the topics and questions.
    • Control the interview, but also plans─and may manage.
    • Proposes the criteria for drawing the sample participants.
    • Writes the recruitment screener and may recruit participants.
interviewer responsibilities cont
Interviewer Responsibilities(cont.)
  • Develops the various pre-tasking exercise.
  • Prepares any research tools to be used during the interview.
  • Supervises the transcription process.
  • Helps analyze the data and draw insights.
  • Write the client report, including video clips for the oral report.
projective techniques
Projective Techniques
  • Because researchers are often looking for hidden or suppressed meanings, projective techniques can be used within the interview structures.
    • Word or picture association
    • Sentence completion
    • Cartoons or empty balloons
    • Thematic Apperception Test
projective techniques cont
Projective Techniques(cont.)
  • Component sorts
  • Sensory sorts
  • Laddering or benefit chain
  • Imagination exercise
  • Semantic mapping
  • Metaphor elicitation technique
individual depth interviews
Individual Depth Interviews
  • An individual depth interview (IDI) is an interaction between an individual interviewer and a single participant.
  • Participants are usually paid to share their insights and ideas.
  • Recently, advances in technology have encouraged the use of detailed visual and auditory aids during interviews, creating the methodology know as computer-assisted personal interviews(CAPIs).
research using idis

Oral Histories

Life Histories

Grounded Theory

Ethnography

Critical Incident Techniques

Research Using IDIs

Culture Interviews

Types

Convergent Interviewing

Sequential Interviewing

group interviews
Group Interviews
  • Group interviews is a data collection method using a single interviewer with more than one research participant.
  • Group interviews vary widely in size :
    • Dyad-two people
    • Triad-three people
    • Mini groups-two to six people
    • Small groups-six to ten people
    • Super groups-up to twenty people
determining the number of groups
Determining the Number of Groups
  • The skilled researcher helps the sponsor determine an appropriate number of group interviews to conduct.
  • The number of groups is determined by:
  • The general rule is that one should keep conducting focus groups until no new insights are gained.
  • Scope
  • Distinct market segments
  • Number of new ideas or insights
  • Level of detail
  • Level of geographic or ethnic distinctions
  • The homogeneity of the groups
focus groups
Focus Groups
  • The focus group is a panel of people (usually 6-10 people), led by a trained moderator, who meet for 90 minutes to 2 hours.
  • The facilitator uses group dynamics principles to focus or guide the group in an exchange of ideas, feelings, and experiences.
  • Focus groups can be conducted using various modes.
group interview modes
Group Interview Modes

Face-to-Face

Telephone Focus Groups

Online Focus Groups

Videoconferencing Focus Groups

combining qualitative methodologies
Combining Qualitative Methodologies
  • Case Study
    • It’s also referred to as the case history, is a powerful research methodology that combines individual and group interviews with record analysis and observation.
    • The objective is to obtain multiple perspectives of a single organization, situation, event, or process at a point in time or over a period of time.
combining qualitative methodologies1
Combining Qualitative Methodologies
  • Action Research
    • It is designed to address complex, practical problems about which little is known.
    • It involves brainstorming, followed by sequential trial-and-error attempts until desired results are achieved.
merging qualitative and quantitative methodologies
Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies
  • Triangulation is the combining of several qualitative methods or combining qualitative with quantitative methods.
  • Qualitative and quantitative studies can be conducted simultaneously.
  • A qualitative study can be ongoing while multiple waves of quantitative studies are done, measuring changes in behavior and attitudes over time.
merging qualitative and quantitative methodologies cont
Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies(cont.)
  • A qualitative study can precede a quantitative study, and a second qualitative study then might follow the quantitative study, seeking more clarification.
  • A quantitative study can precede a qualitative study.