1914-1918: The World at War. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY. Causes of the War. Causes of World War I (1914-1918 ). Definition: Building up armed forces , getting ready for war Undue prevalence of military spirit
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1914-1918:The Worldat War By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S.Chappaqua, NY
Definition: Building up armed forces , getting ready for war Undue prevalence of military spirit The tendency to regard military efficiency and strength as the supreme goal of the state. Explanation and Supporting Evidence All countries increased the size of their standing armies. Britain – 36 Div France – 72 Div Russia – 150 Div Germany – 82 Div Arms Race: Dreadnoughts-Britain’s 2 Power Policy Big Bertha’s Highly detailed plans of mobilization. Militarism
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.
Militarism • Germany was the leader in military organization and efficiency, the great powers of Europe copied the universal conscription
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Definition: An agreement between states in which each pledges to assist other(s) in security matters. Explanations and Supportive Evidence Europe was divided into two main alliances – Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance. This could either create a balance of power where no country or alliance would dare go to war for fear it could not win. Or If any two countries of opposing alliances begin fighting then it drags all of the alliance partners into the war creating a very large war out perhaps a rather minor affair. Alliances
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
Explanations and Supporting Evidence The nations of Europe wished to continue to expand their empires. Russia, France, Great Britain and Germany fought over colonies in Africa and Asia. Example: Fashoda Incident, Balkans, Morroco Definition: The control and domination of one nation over another foreign nation. Imperialism
Imperialism • Britain and France resolved differences in Africa • Morocco – Germany will once again inspire Moroccan independence (angers French and Britain will support) • 1908 – Austria-Hungary will annex Bosnia-Herzegovina (Serbian unhappy) • French will seek revenge over Germany in order to reclaim Alsace-Lorraine
Definition: Pride, loyalty and devotion towards your country and its goals. Explanation and Supporting Evidence This created tension as ethnic groups either wanted to separate from a country or join together to create a country. Serbians wanted self –determination which threatened Austria-Hungary. Revanche – France wanted Alsace and Lorraine back from Germany. Nationalism
Nationalism • France – anti-German (seeking revenge) • Britain – anti-German • German -ultra-nationalism rises as people seek a “place in the sun” – a great Empire
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe
Definition: A geographic area of Europe between the empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire that was strategically important and dominated by wars of nationalism. Explanation and Supporting Detail Many Serbs living in Austria-Hungary did not want to be ruled by Austria-Hungary. Gavrilo Princip, a young student joined an ultra-nationalist terrorist organization and assissinated the heir to the Austrian throne Archduke Franz-Ferdinand. Balkans Crisis
The Balkans • Nationalism posed a problem for Austria-Hungary and the Balkans, areas comprised of many conflicting national groups. • Russia's willingness to support its Slavic brother (Serbs) conflicted with Austria-Hungary's Pan-Germanism.
What:The Assassination Where: Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
Alliances • Upon the assassination of Arch-duke Franz Ferdinand the government of Austria-Hungary were given assurances by the German government that they would support Austria-Hungary whether the issue was settled peacefully or by war – “Blank Cheque.” • This in turn dragged in the two alliances making this a world war.
Definition: Extreme nationalism that is willing to express that patriotism using violence and hatred towards perceived enemies. Explanation and Supporting Evidence The immediate cause of WWI occurred when Gavrilo Princip and the ultra-nationalist group the “Black Hand” were willing to use violence in order to achieve their goal of self-determination for Serbia. Ultra-nationalism
Immediate Cause of WWI • Austria-Hungary issues Serbia an ultimatum (list of demands) • Serbian response did not satisfy Austria – Hungary • Crisis grows as all allies mobilize (calling troops into active service, preparing machinery etc.)
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians
Battle of the Marne (1914 - 1st) • By the end of August 1914, the German armies were heading towards Paris. The British and French armies were in retreat, and many of Paris' citizens evacuated. The French Commander-in-Chief, Joseph Joffre, organized an attack on the Germans. John French and the BEF joined the attack. The Allied forces made defensive lines near Paris. The German Commander-in-Chief, General Helmuth von Moltke, ordered the armies to retreat. The Allies forces advanced slowly allowing the Germans to reunite at River Aisne. The French and German lost around 250,000 men each, and the British lost around 12,733 men. The Allied victory prevented Germany from winning the war in one swift attack. However, hope of a short war was lost when the German armies escaped.
The Western Front Race to the Sea!!
Ypres - 1914 • Ypres – British/Canadians stop a German attack, west is stabilized and the stalemate on the Western front begins
STALEMATE • a situation in which neither side can take any further worthwhile action – neither side can prevail