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Introduction to Hadoop. SAP Open Source Summit - October 2010 Lars George – 1010.01. Traditional Large-Scale Computation. Traditionally, computation has been processor-bound Relatively small amounts of data

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introduction to hadoop

Introduction to Hadoop

SAP Open Source Summit - October 2010

Lars George –


traditional large scale computation
Traditional Large-Scale Computation
  • Traditionally, computation has been processor-bound
    • Relatively small amounts of data
    • Significant amount of complex processing performed on that data
  • For many years, the primary push was to increase the computing power of a single machine
    • Faster processor, more RAM
distributed systems
Distributed Systems
  • Moore’s Law: roughly stated, processing power doubles every two years
  • Even that hasn’t always proved adequate for very CPU-intensive jobs
  • Distributed systems evolved to allow developers to use multiple machines for a single job
    • MPI
    • PVM
    • Condor

MPI: Message Passing Interface

PVM: Parallel Virtual Machine

distributed systems problems
Distributed Systems: Problems
  • Programming for traditional distributed systems is complex
    • Data exchange requires synchronization
    • Finite bandwidth is available
    • Temporal dependencies are complicated
    • It is difficult to deal with partial failures of the system
  • Ken Arnold, CORBA designer:
    • “Failure is the defining difference between distributed and local programming, so you have to design distributed systems with the expectation of failure”
      • Developers spend more time designing for failure than they do actually working on the problem itself

CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture

distributed systems data storage
Distributed Systems: Data Storage
  • Typically, data for a distributed system is stored on a SAN
  • At compute time, data is copied to the compute nodes
  • Fine for relatively limited amounts of data

SAN: Storage Area Network

the data driven world
The Data-Driven World
  • Modern systems have to deal with far more data than was the case in the past
    • Organizations are generating huge amounts of data
    • That data has inherent value, and cannot be discarded
  • Examples:
    • Facebook – over 15Pb of data
    • eBay – over 10Pb of data
  • Many organizations are generating data at a rate of terabytes (or more) per day
data becomes the bottleneck
Data Becomes the Bottleneck
    • Getting the data to the processors becomes the bottleneck
  • Quick calculation
    • Typical disk data transfer rate: 75Mb/sec
    • Time taken to transfer 100Gb of data to the processor: approx 22 minutes!
      • Assuming sustained reads
      • Actual time will be worse, since most servers have less than 100Gb of RAM available
  • A new approach is needed
partial failure support
Partial Failure Support
  • The system must support partial failure
    • Failure of a component should result in a graceful degradation of application performance
      • Not complete failure of the entire system
data recoverability
Data Recoverability
  • If a component of the system fails, its workload should be assumed by still-functioning units in the system
    • Failure should not result in the loss of any data
component recovery
Component Recovery
  • If a component of the system fails and then recovers, it should be able to rejoin the system
    • Without requiring a full restart of the entire system
  • Component failures during execution of a job should not affect the outcome of the job
  • Adding load to the system should result in a graceful decline in performance of individual jobs
    • Not failure of the system
  • Increasing resources should support a proportional increase in load capacity
apache hadoop
Apache Hadoop

Open Source Core Storage and Processing Engine

  • Consolidates Everything
    • Move complex and relational data into a single repository
  • Stores Inexpensively
    • Keep raw data always available
    • Use commodity hardware
  • Processes at the Source
    • Eliminate ETL bottlenecks
    • Mine data first, govern later


Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

the hadoop project
The Hadoop Project
  • Hadoop is an open-source project overseen by the Apache Software Foundation
  • Originally based on papers published by Google in 2003 and 2004
  • Hadoop committers work at several different organizations
    • Including Facebook, Yahoo!, Cloudera
origin of hadoop
Origin of Hadoop

How does an Elephant sneak up on you?










Runs 4,000 Node Hadoop Cluster

Launches SQL Support for Hadoop

Publishes MapReduce, GFS Paper

Hadoop wins Terabyte sort benchmark

Open Source, Web Crawler project created by Doug Cutting

Open Source, MapReduce & HDFS project created by Doug Cutting

Releases CDH3 and Cloudera Enterprise

what is hadoop
What is Hadoop?
  • A scalable fault-tolerant distributed system for data storage and processing (open source under the Apache license)
  • Scalable data processing engine
    • Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): self-healing high-bandwidth clustered storage
    • MapReduce: fault-tolerant distributed processing
  • Key value
    • Flexible -> store data without a schema and add it later as needed
    • Affordable -> cost / TB at a fraction of traditional options
    • Broadly adopted -> a large and active ecosystem
    • Proven at scale -> dozens of petabyte + implementations in production today
apache hadoop1
Apache Hadoop

The Importance of Being Open

No Lock-In- Investments in skills, services & hardware are preserved regardless of vendor choice

  • Rich Ecosystem- Dozens of complementary software, hardware
  • and services firms
  • Community Development- Hadoop & related projects are expanding at a rapid pace
hadoop in the enterprise
Hadoop in the Enterprise



Business Users

Web Application

Enterprise Reporting

Hive, Pig









apache hadoop not without challenges
Apache Hadoop - Not Without Challenges
  • Ease of use– command line interface only; data import and access requires development skills
  • Complexity – more than a dozen different components, all with different versions, dependencies and patch requirements
  • Manageability – Hadoop is challenging to configure, upgrade, monitor and administer
  • Interoperability – limited support for popular databases and analytical tools
hadoop components
Hadoop Components
  • Hadoop consists of two core components
    • The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)
    • MapReduce
  • There are many other projects based around core Hadoop
    • Often referred to as the ‘Hadoop Ecosystem’
    • Pig, Hive, HBase, Flume, Oozie, Sqoop, etc
  • A set of machines running HDFS and MapReduce is known as a Hadoop Cluster
    • Individual machines are known as nodes
    • A cluster can have as few as one node, as many as several thousands
      • More nodes = better performance!
hadoop components hdfs
Hadoop Components: HDFS
  • HDFS, the Hadoop Distributed File System, is responsible for storing data on the cluster
  • Data is split into blocks and distributed across multiple nodes in the cluster
    • Each block is typically 64Mb or 128Mb in size
  • Each block is replicated multiple times
    • Default is to replicate each block three times
    • Replicas are stored on different nodes
    • This ensures both reliability and availability
hadoop components mapreduce
Hadoop Components: MapReduce
  • MapReduce is the system used to process data in the Hadoop cluster
  • Consists of two phases: Map, and then Reduce
    • Between the two is a stage known as the sort and shuffle
  • Each Map task operates on a discrete portion of the overall dataset
    • Typically one HDFS block of data
  • After all Maps are complete, the MapReduce system distributes the intermediate data to nodes which perform the Reduce phase
hdfs basic concepts
HDFS Basic Concepts
  • HDFS is a filesystem written in Java
    • Based on Google’s GFS
  • Sits on top of a native filesystem
    • ext3, xfs etc
  • Provides redundant storage for massive amounts of data
    • Using cheap, unreliable computers
hdfs basic concepts cont d
HDFS Basic Concepts (cont’d)
  • HDFS performs best with a ‘modest’ number of large files
    • Millions, rather than billions, of files
    • Each file typically 100Mb or more
  • Files in HDFS are ‘write once’
    • No random writes to files are allowed
    • Append support is available in Cloudera’s Distribution for Hadoop (CDH) and in Hadoop 0.21
  • HDFS is optimized for large, streaming reads of files
    • Rather than random reads
mapreduce example word count
MapReduce Example: Word Count
  • Count the number of occurrences of each word in a large amount of input data
    • This is the ‘hello world’ of MapReduce programming

map(Stringinput_key, String input_value)foreach word w in input_value:emit(w, 1)

reduce(Stringoutput_key, Iterator<int> intermediate_vals) set count = 0foreachv in intermediate_vals: count += vemit(output_key, count)

mapreduce example word count cont d
MapReduce Example: Word Count (cont’d)
  • Input to the Mapper:
  • Output from the Mapper:

(3414, 'the cat sat on the mat')(3437, 'the aardvark sat on the sofa')

('the', 1), ('cat', 1), ('sat', 1), ('on', 1), ('the', 1), ('mat', 1), ('the', 1), ('aardvark', 1),('sat', 1), ('on', 1), ('the', 1), ('sofa', 1)

mapreduce example word count cont d1
MapReduce Example: Word Count (cont’d)
  • Intermediate data sent to the Reducer:
  • Final Reducer Output:

('aardvark', [1])('cat', [1]) ('mat', [1])('on', [1, 1])('sat', [1, 1])('sofa', [1]) ('the', [1, 1, 1, 1])

('aardvark', 1)('cat', 1) ('mat', 1)('on', 2)('sat', 2)('sofa', 1) ('the', 4)

what is common across hadoop able problems
What is common across Hadoop-able problems?

Nature of the data

  • Complex data
  • Multiple data sources
  • Lots of it

Nature of the analysis

  • Batch processing
  • Parallel execution
  • Spread data over a cluster of servers and take the computation to the data
what analysis is possible with hadoop

Collaborative filtering

Prediction models

Sentiment analysis

Risk assessment

What Analysis is Possible With Hadoop?
  • Text mining
  • Index building
  • Graph creation and analysis
  • Pattern recognition
benefits of analyzing with hadoop
Benefits of Analyzing With Hadoop
  • Previously impossible/impractical to do this analysis
  • Analysis conducted at lower cost
  • Analysis conducted in less time
  • Greater flexibility
1 modeling true risk1
1. Modeling True Risk

Solution with Hadoop

  • Source, parse and aggregate disparate data sources to build comprehensive data picture
    • e.g. credit card records, call recordings, chat sessions, emails, banking activity
  • Structure and analyze
    • Sentiment analysis, graph creation, pattern recognition

Typical Industry

  • Financial Services (Banks, Insurance)
2 customer churn analysis1
2. Customer Churn Analysis

Solution with Hadoop

  • Rapidly test and build behavioral model of customer from disparate data sources
  • Structure and analyze with Hadoop
    • Traversing
    • Graph creation
    • Pattern recognition

Typical Industry

  • Telecommunications, Financial Services
3 recommendation engine1
3. Recommendation Engine

Solution with Hadoop

  • Batch processing framework
    • Allow execution in in parallel over large datasets
  • Collaborative filtering
    • Collecting ‘taste’ information from many users
    • Utilizing information to predict what similar users like

Typical Industry

  • Ecommerce, Manufacturing, Retail
4 ad targeting1
4. Ad Targeting

Solution with Hadoop

  • Data analysis can be conducted in parallel, reducing processing times from days to hours
  • With Hadoop, as data volumes grow the only expansion cost is hardware
  • Add more nodes without a degradation in performance

Typical Industry

  • Advertising
5 point of sale transaction analysis1
5. Point of Sale Transaction Analysis

Solution with Hadoop

  • Batch processing framework
    • Allow execution in in parallel over large datasets
  • Pattern recognition
    • Optimizing over multiple data sources
    • Utilizing information to predict demand

Typical Industry

  • Retail
6 analyzing network data to predict failure1
6. Analyzing Network Data to Predict Failure

Solution with Hadoop

  • Take the computation to the data
    • Expand the range of indexing techniques from simple scans to more complex data mining
  • Better understand how the network reacts to fluctuations
    • How previously thought discrete anomalies may, in fact, be interconnected
  • Identify leading indicators of component failure

Typical Industry

  • Utilities, Telecommunications, Data Centers
7 threat analysis1
7. Threat Analysis

Solution with Hadoop

  • Parallel processing over huge datasets
  • Pattern recognition to identify anomalies i.e. threats

Typical Industry

  • Security
  • Financial Services
  • General: spam fighting, click fraud
8 trade surveillance1
8. Trade Surveillance

Solution with Hadoop

  • Batch processing framework
    • Allow execution in in parallel over large datasets
  • Pattern recognition
    • Detect trading anomalies and harmful behavior

Typical Industry

  • Financial services
  • Regulatory bodies
9 search quality1
9. Search Quality

Solution with Hadoop

  • Analyzing search attempts in conjunction with structured data
  • Pattern recognition
    • Browsing pattern of users performing searches in different categories

Typical Industry

  • Web
  • Ecommerce
10 data sandbox1
10. Data “Sandbox”

Solution with Hadoop

  • With Hadoop an organization can “dump” all this data into a HDFS cluster
  • Then use Hadoop to start trying out different analysis on the data
  • See patterns or relationships that allow the organization to derive additional value from data

Typical Industry

  • Common across all industries
the hadoop ecosystem
TheHadoop Ecosystem
  • Started as stand-aloneproject
  • Turnedintothrivingecosystem
  • Full stack of toolscoverscompleteset of businessproblems
  • Covers
    • dataaggregationandcollection
    • datainput and output to legacysystem
    • randomaccess to data
    • high-levelquerylanguages
    • workflowsystem
    • UI framework to enableeasyaccess
    • ...
hive and pig
Hive and Pig
  • Although MapReduce is very powerful, it can also be complex to master
  • Many organizations have business or data analysts who are skilled at writing SQL queries, but not at writing Java code
  • Many organizations have programmers who are skilled at writing code in scripting languages
  • Hive and Pig are two projects which evolved separately to help such people analyze huge amounts of data via MapReduce
    • Hive was initially developed at Facebook, Pig at Yahoo!
  • Cloudera offers a two-day course, Data Manipulation with Hive and Pig
hbase the hadoop database
HBase: ‘The Hadoop Database’
  • HBase is a column-store database layered on top of HDFS
    • Based on Google’s Big Table
    • Provides interactive access to data
  • Can store massive amounts of data
    • Multiple Gigabytes, up to Terabytes of data
  • High Write Throughput
    • Thousands per second (per node)
  • Copes well with sparse data
    • Tables can have many thousands of columns
      • Even if a given row only has data in a few of the columns
  • Has a constrained access model
    • Limited to lookup of a row by a single key
    • No transactions
      • Single row operations only
  • Flume is a distributed, reliable, available service for efficiently moving large amounts of data as it is produced
    • Ideally suited to gathering logs from multiple systems and inserting them into HDFS as they are generated
  • Developed in-house by Cloudera, and released as open-source software
  • Design goals:
    • Reliability
    • Scalability
    • Manageability
    • Extensibility
zookeeper distributed consensus engine
ZooKeeper: Distributed Consensus Engine
  • ZooKeeper is a ‘distributed consensus engine’
    • A quorum of ZooKeeper nodes exists
    • Clients can connect to any node and be assured that they will receive the correct, up-to-date information
    • Elegantly handles a node crashing
  • Used by many other Hadoop projects
    • HBase, for example
fuse dfs
  • Fuse-DFS allows mounting HDFS volumes via the Linux FUSE filesystem
    • Enables applications which can only write to a ‘standard’ filesystem to write to HDFS with no application modification
  • Caution: Does not imply that HDFS can be used as a general-purpose filesystem
    • Still constrained by HDFS limitations
      • For example, no modifications to existing files
  • Useful for legacy applications which need to write to HDFS

FUSE: Filesystem in USEr space

ganglia cluster monitoring
Ganglia: Cluster Monitoring
  • Ganglia is an open-source, scalable, distributed monitoring product for high-performance computing systems
    • Specifically designed for clusters of machines
  • Not, strictly speaking, a Hadoop project
    • But very useful for monitoring Hadoop clusters
  • Collects, aggregates, and provides time-series views of metrics
  • Integrates with Hadoop’s metrics-collection system
  • Note: Ganglia doesn’t provide alerts
    • But is easily paired with alerting systems such as Nagios
sqoop retrieving data from rdbmss
Sqoop: Retrieving Data From RDBMSs
  • Sqoop: SQL to Hadoop
  • Extracts data from RDBMSs and inserts it into HDFS
    • Also works the other way around
  • Command-line tool which works with any RDBMS
    • Optimizations available for some specific RDBMSs
  • Generates Writeable classes for use in MapReduce jobs
  • Developed at Cloudera, released as Open Source
  • Hue: The Hadoop User Experience
  • Graphical front-end to developer and administrator functionality
    • Uses a Web browser as its front-end
  • Developed by Cloudera, released as Open Source
  • Extensible
    • Publically-available API
  • Cloudera Enterprise includes extra functionality
    • Advanced user management
    • Integration with LDAP, Active Directory
    • Accounting
about cloudera
About Cloudera
  • Cloudera is “The commercial Hadoop company”
  • Founded by leading experts on Hadoop from Facebook, Google, Oracle and Yahoo
  • Provides consulting and training services for Hadoop users
  • Staff includes several committers to Hadoop projects
recent news awards
Recent News & Awards
  • News
    • Partnership with Netezza to integrate TwinFin with Hadoop
    • Partnership with Quest to connect Oracle and Hadoop (Ora-Oop)
    • Partnershipwith NTT DATA to accelerateHadoopadoption in APAC region
    • PartnershipwithTeradata, Aster Data, EMC Greenplum and more
    • Launched Cloudera Enterprise and Cloudera’s Distribution for Hadoop v3
    • $25 Million in Series C Funding, Ledby Meritech Capital Partners
  • Awards
    • Venture Capital Journal: #1 of 20 most promising startups
    • Best Young Tech Entrepreneurs 2010 – Jeff Hammerbacher
    • Selected as OnDemand 100
cloudera s distribution for hadoop version 3
Cloudera’s Distribution for Hadoop, Version 3

The Industry’s Leading Hadoop Distribution








Flume, Sqoop



  • Open source – 100% Apache licensed
  • Simplified – Component versions & dependencies managed for you
  • Integrated – All components & functions interoperate through standard API’s
  • Reliable – Patched with fixes from future releases to improve stability
  • Supported – Employs project founders and committers for >70% of components
cloudera software all open source
Cloudera Software (All Open-Source)
  • Cloudera’s Distribution of Hadoop (CDH)
    • A single, easy-to-install package from the Apache Hadoop core repository
    • Includes a stable version of Hadoop, plus critical bug fixes and solid new features from the development version
  • Hue
    • Browser-based tool for cluster administration and job development
    • Supports managing internal clusters as well as those running on public clouds
    • Helps decrease development time
cloudera enterprise
Cloudera Enterprise

Enterprise Support and Management Tools

  • Increases reliability and consistency of the Hadoop platform
  • Improves Hadoop’s conformance to important IT policies and procedures
  • Lowers the cost of management and administration
cloudera enterprise1
Cloudera Enterprise

Management Tools

cloudera enterprise2
Cloudera Enterprise
  • Cloudera Enterprise
    • Complete package of software and support
    • Built on top of CDH
    • Includes tools for monitoring the Hadoop cluster
      • Resource consumption tracking
      • Quota management
      • Etc
    • Includes management tools
      • Authorization management and provisioning
      • Integration with LDAP
      • Etc
    • 24 x 7 support
cloudera training
Cloudera Training

Public and Private Classes

  • Current Curriculum
    • Developer Training (3 days) - Hands-on training for developers who want to analyze their data but are new to Hadoop
    • System Administrator Training (2 Days) - Hands-on training for administrators who will be responsible for setting up, configuring, monitoring a Hadoop cluster
    • HBase Training (2 Days) - Developers who want to use HBase to store data because they need one or more of (1) TB+ data sets, (2) Low latency, random reads & writes or (3) High Throughput (e.g. 10,000’s writes/second)
    • Hive Training (2 Days) - Analysts or developers who want to use an SQL-like language to analyze data in Hadoop
  • Public classes and curriculum can be found at
cloudera professional services
Cloudera Professional Services

Enable and Accelerate Hadoop Deployments

  • Cloudera Solution Architects (SAs) deliver expertise putting Hadoop in production
    • Function as tech leads, trainers
    • Can code and prototype, but goal is to enable customers to do the work
  • Services include
    • Architecture review
    • Good practices for developing and operationalizing Hadoop
    • Customer specific code and templates
    • Custom integrations and patches
cloudera professional services1
Cloudera Professional Services
  • Provides consultancy services to many key users of Hadoop
    • Including Netflix, Samsung, Trulia, ComScore, LinkedIn, University of Phoenix,…
  • Solutions Architects are experts in Hadoop and related technologies
    • Several are committers to the Apache Hadoop project
  • Provides training in key areas of Hadoop administration and Development
    • Courses include Hadoop for System Administrators, Hadoop for Developers, Data Analysis with Hive and Pig, Learning HBase
    • Custom course development available
    • Both public and on-site training available