Who are SSQ & Riverstone? • SSQ Group was founded in 1983 • Producers and exporters of natural slate from Spain, Argentina and Brazil • Specialists in finest qualityimported slate & phyllite • Market leader in UK; exports to Europe and worldwide
Who are SSQ and Riverstone? • Riverstone Ltd (part of SSQ Group) was established in 2003 • Recently expanded product portfolio to include full Riverstone Architectural range • Due to quarry ownership we can always fulfill our promises and ensure high quality control procedures are in place
Objectives • To explain the formation and extraction of phyllite • To demonstrate why phyllite can be an excellent alternative to slate • To highlight why its properties make it suitable for architectural applications • To help provide sufficient information to ensure problem free specifications using natural phyllite architectural and flooring products
Contents • Introduction to phyllite – geology, extraction and source • Advantages of phyllite and problems occurred using inferior products • Natural phyllite testing & standards • Natural stone comparison table • Stone protection
An Introduction to Natural phyllite • Definition: “Phyllite is from scientific Latin and means ‘leaf-stone’ • phyllite is a medium grey stone.” • Phyllite is a metamorphic stone. • Phyllite can be split by hand. • Phyllite is formed from two other types of stone: slate and • schist. • Phyllite has a visible sheen owing to its exposure to extreme heat and pressure • Phyllite tends to have a corrugated surface which can be • polished to achieve a smooth surface.
An introduction to natural phyllite Source: San Luis quarry located in Argentina • Total ownership by SSQ Group. • All quality control done by trusted methods at source. • Formed over 600 million years ago. • Shares many characteristics with Cornish slate due to the tectonic plate movements.
The formation of phyllite There are 3 key classifications of natural stone, each is formed in different ways and is comprised of different minerals. Metamorphic Rock Phyllite Rock that has been physically altered by heat and/or pressure; most commonly quartzite, slate, marble and phyllite. Sedimentary Rock Limestone Rock formed by the hardening of material deposited in some process; most commonly sandstone, shale, and limestone. Igneous Rock Granite Formed when molten (melted) materials harden through crystallisation; most commonly granite and basalt.
phyllite The formation of phyllite Phyllite is a fine-grained metamorphic rock, formed from the compressive pressure from both the sea and the earth’s core. • Varying degrees of heat and pressure contribute to the stones formation and strength • Due to the fine grain and high compression of phyllite, the result is a very dense stone
Quartz vein The extraction process Phyllite is always quarried from above and below the quartz vein. Why quarry around the quartz vein? 1. Acts as a compressive barrier 2. Ensures the highest quality of stone
The extraction process cont. The stone is extracted in steps using a diamond cutting wire. Quarry rock face Why quarry in steps? 1. Minimises wastage 2. No need to use explosives
Advantages of natural phyllite • High density • Very low porosity • Durable • Exceptional strength • Versatile • Minimum maintenance (once laid and sealed properly)
Advantages of natural phyllite • Non combustible • Not susceptible to acid attack thus pollution resistant • Natural product • Long life expectancy
Problems from using an inferior natural stone to phyllite • Can be poorly calibrated • Can be poorly gauged • Easily absorb stains • Efflorescence (salt leaches from material) • Rust (leaching pyrite)
Problems from using an inferior natural stone to phyllite cont. • Has negative reactions to the freeze-thaw cycle • Limitation on surface finish (due to low density) • May disintegrate (mineral properties react) • May distort under intense heat
Testing & Standards 6 main types of tests for natural stone: Type: Density; Kg/m3 Description: Measured against water 1,000, higher the density the better. EU Test: BS EN 1936 Type: Water Absorption, % Description: Checks for water absorption in stone, lower is better. EU Test: BS EN 13755 Type: Modulus of Rupture, MPa Description: Measures the maximum load the stone can withstand, higher is better. EU Test: BS EN 12372
Testing & Standards cont. 6 main types of tests for natural stone: Type: Abrasion Resistance Description: Represents the stone’s surface to wear, higher is better. EU Test: BS EN 14157 Type: Freeze Thaw Cycle, Mpa Description: Measures the effect of extreme changes in weather, higher is better. EU Test: BS EN 12371 Type: Slip Resistance Description: Tested in wet and dry conditions, higher is better. EU Test: BS EN 14231
Testing & Standards cont. Riverstone Test Results Tests have been conducted by Sandberg Consulting Engineers
Stone comparison table * Information has been taken from the corporate websites
Installation - flooring • The main methods of fixing phyllite flooring are: • Mortar (thick bed) method • Fix the floor tiles in place with a concrete slurry mix • Adhesive (thin bed) method • Fix the floor tiles in place with a proprietary adhesive • Grouting • Tiles must be firmly set in the mortar or adhesive before commencing grouting. Specialist resin based and cement based grouts are available from a variety of suppliers • Under floor heating • Phyllite retains heat well and is suitable for use with under floor heating.
Installation - cladding • There are various fixing methods depending on where the cladding is being applied and the density of the pieces of phyllite • For very dense phyllite cladding the main considerations are: DEAD LOADS – actual weight of the stonework. APPLIED LOADS – wind pressure & suction, window cleaning equipment & any thermal or structural movements that may occur • For phyllite used as thin cladding, there are various fixing methods. It is best to check BS 8298: 1994 (Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding or lining) before a final selection is made. • Fixing systems advice and suppliers: • Amare Stone - http://amarestone.com • Halfen Limited - http://www.halfen.co.uk/ • Ancon Building Products - http://www.ancon.co.uk/
Protection (Stone Sealing) Helps to prolong the life of the stone; • Helps prevent marks and scratches • Protects against damaging chemicals An example of a sealed floor is below: * Some stone sealers will alter the colour of the stone e.g, make it darker. It is always recommended that you test the sealer on a sample first or seek advice from the seller. There are many sealants ranging from water to oil based giving matt and gloss finishes. An example of a gloss finish sealant is LITHOFIN.
Installation – British Standard References • Wall and floor tiling • BS 5385 - Wall and Floor Tiling. Code of practice for design and installation • BS 8000: Part 11 – Workmanship on building sites. Code of practice for wall and floor tiling • Cladding • BS 8298: 1994 – Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining • BS 6213: 2000 – Guide to selection of construction sealants • Cladding • BS 8298: 1994 – Code of practice for design and installation of natural stone cladding and lining • BS 6213: 2000 – Guide to selection of construction sealants
Different types of applications Interior Flooring Exterior Flooring
Different types of applications cont. Window sills Slabs
Different types of applications cont. External Wall Cladding Internal Wall Cladding