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Beaker Breaker Draw the Lewis structure of the following polyatomic ions: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Beaker Breaker Draw the Lewis structure of the following polyatomic ions:. nitrite ion sulfite ion. Metallic Bonding. 6-4. Do metals have “few” or “many” valence electrons?. How do they achieve “stability” ?. Metallic Bond Model. metals have very few electrons in their highest E level

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beaker breaker draw the lewis structure of the following polyatomic ions
Beaker BreakerDraw the Lewis structure of the following polyatomic ions:
  • nitrite ion
  • sulfite ion
metallic bond model
Metallic Bond Model
  • metals have very few electrons in their highest E level
  • metals frequently have many vacant d-orbitals just below the outer level
  • vacant orbitals of adjacent atoms overlap which allows these loosely held e-s to roam freely
metallic bond model con t
Metallic Bond Model (con’t)
  • “delocalized electrons” - e-s don’t stay in one locality like…
    • covalent bonding: stay in the overlapping of the shared orbitals
    • ionic bonding: e-s are bound to an ion within a crystal lattice
  • mobile electrons form a “sea of electrons”
metallic bonding1
Metallic Bonding
  • the chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
  • mutual sharing of many e-s where each atom contributes its valence e-s which are then free to move about the mostly vacant outer orbitals of all the metal atoms
so why are metals
So…why are metals….
  • good electrical conductors?
  • good thermal conductors?
  • shiny?
  • malleable/ductile?
metallic properties
Metallic Properties
  • High electrical & thermal conductivity
    • due to high mobility and delocalization of e-s
  • Luster (shine)
    • metals absorb E and become “excited” very easily because many of their orbitals are separated by extremely small ∆E…shine occurs when photons are emitted when excited e-s return to ground state
metallic prop con t
Metallic Prop. (con’t)
  • Malleability (ability to be hammered/beaten into thin sheets) and ductility (ability to be drawn, pulled, or extruded to produce wire) because metallic bonding is the same in all directions and a shift in layers of atoms is inconsequential
metallic bond strength
Metallic Bond Strength
  • Expressed in the heat of vaporizationvalue where the bonded atoms in the metallic solid state are converted into indiv. metal atoms in the gaseous state (usually↑heat of vap, the ↑ the bond strength)
  • Determined by
    • strength of nuclear charge & # delocal. e-s
what is the difference between bond energy lattice energy heat of vaporization
What is the difference between…- Bond energy ??- Lattice energy ??- Heat of vaporization ??

Hint:

  • What kind of bonding is generally involved when this term is used?
  • Is energy being added or taken away?
what is the difference between bond energy lattice energy heat of vaporization1
What is the difference between…- Bond energy ??- Lattice energy ??- Heat of vaporization ??
  • Bond energy: E added to break a covalent bond
  • Lattice energy: E released when ionic cmpds are broken down into atoms
  • Heat of vaporization: E added when bonded, metallic, solid atoms are broken into indiv gaseous atoms