Chpt 5 - Gases. Gas Law Development Dalton’s Partial pressure law Graham’s effusion Kinetic Theory Root-mean-square velocity van der Waals equation of state HW: Chpt 5 - pg 119-128, #s 5, 22, 23, 25, 31, 32, 35, 39, 41, 46, 55, 64, 66, 71, 75, 77, 81, 91, 95, 97, 101, 124 Due Mon 9/28.
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Chpt 5 - Gases • Gas Law Development • Dalton’s Partial pressure law • Graham’s effusion • Kinetic Theory • Root-mean-square velocity • van der Waals equation of state • HW: Chpt 5 - pg 119-128, #s 5, 22, 23, 25, 31, 32, 35, 39, 41, 46, 55, 64, 66, 71, 75, 77, 81, 91, 95, 97, 101, 124 Due Mon 9/28
Torricelli barometer Pressure is? Units? The height in mm of mercury above the surface of the resevoir of mercury determines the pressure. The units are mmHg. mmHg is also the same unit as Torr. i.e. standard pressure is 760 mmHg and 760 Torr
Simple Manometer Similar to the barometer, the height difference of the Hg relates the pressure difference in the unknown gas bulb side to the current atmospheric pressure. The higher Hg side has the _____ pressure. (higher/lower)
Boyle’s Law • Constant temperature experiments demonstrated the PV=constant graphing this yields an inverse relationship • Thus if the pressure of volume changes at a constant temperature P1V1 = P2V2
Charles’s Law • Constant pressure experiments demonstrated that Volume is directly proportional to Temperature (Kelvin) V1 = V2 T1 T2 • Several gases were used & all extrapolate to zero volume and the same temperature at negative 273oC
Plots of V vs. T(ºC) Charles’s Law Experiment results
Combined Gas Law P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2 Avogadro’s Law - equal volumes of gas contain equal particles of gas V = k n At constant temperature and pressure the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.
Ideal Gas Law • Putting it all together, we can calculate that constant now. The universal gas constant R. PV=R or PV=nRT nT R =0.0821 l*atm/mol*K =8.31 l*kpa/mol*K
Effusion of Gas into Evacuated Chamber If more than one type of gas or more than one isotope, which gas effuses faster? Lighter gas moves Faster!! KE = 1/2 mv2