The Black Death 1347 - 1351
The Black Death A devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe, killing about a third of Europe's population
Question: Does the Black Plague have any affect on your life Or our society?
The Famine of 1315-1317 • By 1300 farmed as much land as possible • Climate changes yielded 3 yrs of crop failure • As many as 15% of the peasants died. • One consequence of starvation & poverty was susceptibility to disease.
The Black Death • Originated in Asia • Came to Europe along seal and land trade routes • On stow-away rats
The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Human is infected! Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Flea’s gut cloggedwith bacteria.
Why is it called the “Black Death”? • Because of a striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skin • Bubonic • Pneumonic • Septicemic
Bubonic plague • Painful lymph node swellings called buboes • Buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood. • Damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotches. • Most victims died within four to seven days after infection
The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemic Form:almost 100% mortality rate.
Ring Around the Rosie Ring a-round the rosie Pocket full of posies Ashes, ashes! We all fall down!
Medieval Art & the Plague The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors.
The Mortality Rate 35% - 70% 25,000,000 dead !!!
Church Schism • People questioned God and the Church • Church did not have strong leaders to help people • Lost power
A Little Macabre Ditty “A sickly season,” the merchant said,“The town I left was filled with dead,and everywhere these queer red fliescrawled upon the corpses’ eyes,eating them away.”“Fair make you sick,” the merchant said,“They crawled upon the wine and bread.Pale priests with oil and books,bulging eyes and crazy looks,dropping like the flies.”
A Little Macabre Ditty “I had to laugh,” the merchant said,“The doctors purged, and dosed, and bled;“And proved through solemn disputation“The cause lay in some constellation.“Then they began to die.”“First they sneezed,” the merchant said,“And then they turned the brightest red,Begged for water, then fell back.With bulging eyes and face turned black,they waited for the flies.”
A Little Macabre Ditty “I came away,” the merchant said,“You can’t do business with the dead.“So I’ve come here to ply my trade.“You’ll find this to be a fine brocade…” And then he sneezed……….!
Hundred Years War 1337 - 1453
The Cause of Conflict • French and English feuding • Fought for land and the English Channel
The War Itself • Short raids • A few major battles • Weapons made the difference • What is more important: weapons or numbers?
French Advantage • Far richer and more populous • At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000 at most, Britain mustered only 32,000.
British Advantage • Weapons Technologies. • Britain’s most successful strategies: • Avoid pitched battles. • Engage in quick, profitable raids • Steal what you can. • Destroy everything else. • Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom.
Joan of Arc (1412-1432) • The daughter of prosperous peasants from Burgundy • Dressed like a man • Fearless • Charasmatic
Joan of Arc • Had visions of divine revelation. • Her “voices” told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English. • Because of her “unnatural dress” and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as a heretic in 1432. • She instantly became a symbol of French resistance.
Guilty Deuteronomy 22:5 The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment: for all that do so are abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Joan of Arc • Why aren’t there many historical women heroines? • Would the world be a better place if their were?