historical research methods telling the stories of new orleans nursing history n.
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Historical Research Methods: Telling the Stories of New Orleans Nursing History

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  1. Historical Research Methods: Telling the Stories of New Orleans Nursing History Deborah Garbee PhD, APRN, BC & Dianna Hutto Douglas DNS APRN-CNS

  2. Historical Research Defined • Integrated Written Record of Past that Weaves in Multiple Factors e.g. Social, Political, & Economic • Probing for Explanations & Relationships , Effects or Trends • Purpose is to Understand the Past to Explain the Present or Future

  3. Historical Research Traditions • Positivistic • Attempt to categorize information and show cause-effect • Idealist • Try to Understand Thoughts of Individuals in an Event Along with Time, Place, and Situation

  4. Historical Design • Define the Study Topic or Focus • There May be a Hypotheses, Questions, or Theoretical Orientation • Climate of the Time Period • ROL, Major Works on Topic • Identify Themes and Ambiguities • Formulate Questions • Organize Data (Full Reference, Archive and/or Library)

  5. Data Collection • Primary Sources • Personal Letters • Diaries • Organizational Records • Photographs • Secondary Sources • Newspaper • Journal articles • Textbooks

  6. Archives • Unpublished Material, Records, Manuscripts, Papers • Finding Aids • Collections, Record Group, Series, Subseries • Linear Cubic Feet • On-site Use Only • Pencil & Paper Only

  7. Confirming Sources • Genuineness • Authenticity • External Criticism • Internal Criticism • Corroborating Evidence

  8. Data Analysis • Based on Questions, Themes, and Conceptual Framework • Discover New Truths • Researcher Bias & Other Bias

  9. Bias • Researcher Bias Identified • Present-Mindedness • Ideological Bias

  10. Ethical Issues • Right to Privacy v. Right to Know • Infringement on Historical Reputation

  11. Interpretation • Researchers Tell the Story • Explain What, How and Why • Explore Relationships

  12. Historical Research Voice • Creatively Render Events, Findings, & Supporting Ideas • Plan the Story Using Themes • Weave Together Historical Facts • Go Beyond Facts • Develop New Knowledge, Ideas, and Meanings

  13. Example Evolving Standards for Nursing Curriculum and Nursing Faculty in Louisiana 1920-1950

  14. Research Questions • How did Louisiana, New Orleans specifically, respond to national calls for nursing reform? • What changes were made to nursing school curricula at Charity Hospital School of Nursing (CHSN) in New Orleans?

  15. Primary Sources • CHSN reports to Committee on Grading of Nursing Schools (Jan. & Oct., 1932) • National League of Nursing Education (NLNE) Facts About Your School (1935, 1939, 1943, & 1945)

  16. Secondary Sources • Goldmark Report, Nursing and Nursing Education in the United States (1923) • Nursing Schools Today and Tomorrow (Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools, 1934) • CHSN Yearbooks Caps and Capes (1938, 1942, & 1950) • CHSN Bulletin (1958-1959) • Louisiana State University (LSU) Register (1940-1941) • LSU Bulletin (1942-1943).

  17. National Calls for Reform • Improve Nursing School Curriculum Without Duplication of Learning • Improve Faculty Qualifications to Teach at a School of Nursing with College Graduates as Faculty • Eliminate Non-Nursing Duties

  18. National Themes • Free Labor, A Win-Lose Situation • Anyone Can Teach – Raising the Bar for Nursing Faculty • Folding Linen, Washing Lettuce, & Cleaning Bathrooms

  19. Local Perspective“Story” • Nursing N’Awlins Style • Sister Servants, CHSN Faculty Snapshot • Nursing Students: White Caps, White Stockings, & White Shoes

  20. Discussion • CHSN Similar to Nursing Schools Across America • Students Worked Long Hours • A non-nurse board • Same Person over Hospital Nursing Service & SON • CHSN Ahead of Other Nursing Schools • Staff Performed Non-Nursing Duties • Large, Varied Patient Population • Increased Number of Graduate Nurses at Bedside • Presence of BSN Ed Students. • Regardless of hard work, CHSN Students Seemed to Love Their Experience.

  21. Conclusions • So what? • Efforts to professionalize and improve nursing image & education continues today. • The image of clinging to an instructors skirt the first day on a nursing unit rings true today in that students are innocent & young. • Just as nurses before us, nursing faculty do not want to sacrifice what we perceive as quality education in the process of reform.

  22. What Topic do you Want to Research from New Orleans Nursing History?

  23. References • Glesne, C. (1999). Becoming Qualitative Researchers An Introduction. (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. • Kyvig, D.E. & Marty, M.A. (2000). Nearby History. (2nd ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press. • Speziale, H.J. & Carpenter, D.R. (2007). Qualitative Research in Nursing Advancing the Humanistic Imperative. (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.