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Chapter VII

Chapter VII

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Chapter VII

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  1. Chapter VII Review

  2. Why is “diversity” an apt word to describe India? • It has a history of political division and class divisions. • It has many deities. • It has many languages and ethnic groups.

  3. Northern India is bordered by the • Himalayas

  4. Three harvests each year have been possible in some parts of India because of • high rainfall from the monsoons

  5. The Vedic Age was a new historical period in India marked by • the migration of Indo-Europeans into India

  6. The varna system developed in order to • create social harmony between groups.

  7. The class and caste systems in India were connected to • a widespread belief in reincarnation.

  8. The reincarnation of the atman into a given class depends on • karma or deeds in life.

  9. What is the underlying message of the cycle of reincarnation? • Accept your place and duties in life.

  10. Indian ritual sacrifices were intended to • promote stability in the world.

  11. The Brahmins were important because • they knew how to perform essential sacrifices correctly.

  12. The collection of Indian poetic hymns dedicated to the various deities and describing sacred practices is • the Rig Veda.

  13. What does the literature of the Vedic Age reveal about the role of women? • They are depicted as strong and resourceful, reflecting a favorable position in society.

  14. Individuals sought an alternative path to salvation by practicing • yoga. • special diet. • meditation.

  15. To be released from the cycle of reincarnation is the concept of • moksha.

  16. Jainism emphasizes the principles of • nonviolence and asceticism.

  17. Siddhartha Gautama articulated the “Four Noble Truths,” which taught that • life is suffering and suffering is caused by desire.

  18. The ultimate spiritual reward in Buddhism is • nirvana.

  19. The foundation of the Hindu religion is • the Vedic religion of northern Indian Aryans.

  20. Hinduism emphasized • the worshiper’s devotion to a particular deity

  21. The habit of Hindu pilgrimage is most important because it promotes • contact, exchanges of ideas, and a broad Hindu identity.

  22. The reasons for India’s habitual political fragmentation has historically been • India’s complex social hierarchy. • the extremely varied Indian landscape. • the many different forms of economic activity.

  23. The Mauryan government was supported by • a high tax on agricultural crops.

  24. In order to improve trade, the Mauryan Empire • issued standard coinage throughout the empire.

  25. The Mauryan leader Ashoka converted to Buddhism and became a unique leader because of • his dedication to nonviolence, morality, and moderation.

  26. The chief source of revenue for the Gupta Empire was • a 25 percent tax on agricultural produce.

  27. The Gupta Empire maintained tight control in the core of the empire through • a powerful national army.

  28. Why is the Gupta Empire described as a “theater-state”? • Splendor and ceremonies of court advertised the benefits of empire.

  29. One of the most important contributions made by Gupta intellectuals was the • concept of zero.

  30. From evidence in Gupta literature and plays, Indian women’s situation since the Vedic period had • worsened.

  31. During the Gupta period, trade was conducted with • China. • the Roman Empire. • Southeast Asia.

  32. An extensive trade network developed on land and sea based on which Indian export products? • Cotton cloth, ivory, and metalwork

  33. Southeast Asia first rose to prominence because • it was an intermediary in regional trade.

  34. Southeast Asia has important natural resources such as • fertile volcanic soil and tropical climate.

  35. The plant and animal species that thrive in Southeast Asia are: • coconuts, bananas, rice, soybeans, sugar cane, chickens and pigs.

  36. What impressive navigational skills did the Malay people develop? • Riding monsoon winds, and navigating using wave patterns, clouds, and swells

  37. Southeast Asian state building was based on • commerce, especially the silk and spice trade, and Hindu/Buddhist culture.

  38. The first major Southeast Asian center, Funan, declined because of • a shift in international trade routes.

  39. The Srivijayan kingdom based its power on control of: • the river ports of former Srivijayan rivals. • the fertile rice lands of Java. • the upland region of the Sumatran interior.

  40. The most important cultural influences on Southeast Asian kingdoms came from • India.