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Alejandra Bravo. Diversity Dividend September 2009. Poverty. Underemployment. Social distance. Diversity Disadvantage?. International Markets. Mixed Marriage. Patents. Trade and Tourism. Diversity Advantage. NATIONAL. Equality Rights. LOCAL. Participation. Interaction.

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alejandra bravo
Alejandra Bravo

Diversity DividendSeptember 2009

diversity disadvantage



Social distance

Diversity Disadvantage?
diversity advantage

International Markets

Mixed Marriage


Trade and Tourism

Diversity Advantage


Equality Rights




diversecity onboard
DiverseCity onBoard

New Faces in Governance

diversecity counts
DiverseCity Counts

Measuring What Matters

thank you
Thank you

why diversity in leadership matters
Why diversity in leadership matters
  • The Conference Board of Canada. The Value of Diverse Leadership. November 2008.This report describes how diversity in leadership can lead to improved financial and organizational performance; increased capacity to link to new global and domestic markets; expanded access to global and domestic talent pools; enhanced innovation and creativity; and strengthened cohesion and social capital.
  • The Diversity Institute. The Importance of Diverse Leadership in the Greater Toronto Area (A Scan of Research). Ryerson University, 2008. This report highlights previous research which describes the importance of diversity in leadership.
Virtcom Consulting. Board Diversification Strategy: Realizing Competitive Advantage and Shareholder Value. 2009.This paper offers advice on how to improve board of governance effectiveness and shareowner value, providing a statistical assessment of the benefits from having board member gender and ethnic diversity.
  • Carter, D.A., B.J. Simkins B.J and W.G. Simpson. February 2003. “Corporate Governance, Board Diversity, and Firm Value.” The Financial Review. 38:33-53. (For purchase only.)The authors examine the relationship between board diversity and firm value for Fortune 1000 firms. After controlling for size, industry, and other corporate governance measures, this report finds significant positive relationships between the fraction of women or minorities on the board and firm value.
Erhardt, Niclas L., James D. Werbel and Charles B. Shrader. “Board of Director Diversity and Firm Financial Performance.” April 2003. Corporate Governance. 11(2):102-111. (For purchase only.)Using 1993 and 1998 financial performance data, the authors find that the percentage of women and minorities on boards of directors for 127 large US companies is associated with positive firm performance. The article also discuses the implications these findings have on strategic human resource management.
  • Linda C. Chandler, Kenneth C. McCrory. “Beyond Political Correctness.” Association Management. Washington: Jan 2005. Vol. 57, Iss. 1. (For purchase only.)This article notes that diverse boards help create quality decision-making and increases success in important areas such as mission, member recruitment and retention, conference attendance, and strategic alliances. Some examples of how diversity has benefited associations are presented.
Alex Mandi. “Risky but rewarding: Globalizing the board.” Directors and Boards. Philadelphia: Spring 2003. Vol 27, Issue 3.This report notes that diversity can leverage a multinational board’s strengths.
  • Laura Mazur. “Diversity is the key to reaching wider audience.” London: September 25, 2003.This article notes that a diverse leadership can strengthen customer understanding.
Julie Siciliano. “The relationship of board member diversity to organizational performance.” Journal of Business Ethics. Dordrecht: Dec. 1996. Vol. 15, Issue 12. pg 1313.With data from 240 YMCA organizations, this report explores the link between gender, occupational and age diversity and performance.
  • N. Van der Walt, C. Ingley, G.S. Shergill, A. Townsend. “Board configuration: are diverse boards better boards?” Corporate Governance. 2006, Vol.6 No. 2, 129 - 147. (For purchase only.)The study examines the financial performance of New Zealand publicly listed companies over a five-year period and focuses on changes in board composition, strategic activity and implications for corporate performance. The study finds limited support for the idea that board configuration, strategic context and corporate decision quality may be linked
numbers of visible minorities and immigrants in leadership
Numbers of visible minorities and immigrants in leadership
  • The Diversity Institute. DiverseCity Counts Report: A Snapshot of Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area.Ryerson University, 2009.

DiverseCity Counts is a three-year research project conducted by Ryerson’s Diversity Institute to study diversity in leadership in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA).

  • Employment Equity Act: Annual Report 2007This annual report presents the number of visible minorities, women, aboriginal people and persons with a disability employed by the federal public service, by companies with large federal contracts, and by companies regulated by the federal government who must submit data to the government to comply with the Employment Equity Act.
democraticSPACE. Women, Visible Minorities in Ontario’s Legislature. December 2006. This post presents figures on diverse political representation in the Ontario legislature (in 2006). The site gives basis to the claim that women and visible minorities are under-represented in the legislature - despite comprising 22.9% of Ontario’s population, visible minorities account for only 6.8% of the legislature, less than one-third of their share of the population.
  • democraticSPACE. Ontario Election Candidates Mostly Men, White. September 2007.This post puts figures on diverse political representation in the candidates that ran for the 2007 Ontario election. They find that out of the 590 candidates who ran for election, over 90% of them were white. The post also breaks the figures down to each party - NDP and Liberals are found to have the most diverse slate of candidates.
Public Policy Forum. (Not as) Male, (Not as) Educated, (Not as) Experienced & (Still) White.This presentation provides a statistical breakdown of Canada’s Members of the 39th Parliament. Comparisons to the 110th US Congress and the 54th British Parliament are also included.
  • Matheson, Andrew. Seeking Inclusion South Asian Political Representation in Suburban Canada. December 2006.The Elections Canada study aims to explain the variables that have led to a more favourable political opportunity structure for visible-minority politicians and candidates in Canada’s suburban centres. The study pays special attention to South Asian politicians in the Toronto suburbs of Mississauga and Brampton, highlighting their high success rate in visible-minority political representation.
Ian Greene. The Courts. Canadian Democratic Audit series. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006. Chapter 3. (For purchase only)This chapter reviews the backgrounds of lawyers and other legal professionals to evaluate the extent to which they reflect the major demographic groups in Canadian society. The chapter highlights the importance of representation and inclusion in any of the legal professions.
  • The Human Resources Professionals Association of Ontario, Corporate Diversity Assessment Report The Corporate Diversity Assessment report is intended to provide a snapshot of where Ontario workplaces stand in matters of diversity. It looked at the experiences of visible minorities, as well as other minority groups (women, people with disabilities, LBGT etc.).
University of Toronto: Employment Equity Report, 2007This report presents data on the number of visible minorities, women, aboriginal people, and persons with a disability as well as some information on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered people.
  • Ryerson University: Annual Report on Employment Equity, 2007This report presents data on the numbers of Women, Visible Minorities, Aboriginal Peoples, and Persons with Disabilities at Ryerson University.
  • Yvonne Abraham. “Diversity still lagging in Bay State boardrooms: White men retain power, survey says.” Boston Globe. Boston, Mass.: May 11, 2007, pg. A.1This article highlights the findings from the first comprehensive survey of race and gender in Massachusetts boardrooms, revealing an immense mismatch between thee composition of those boards and the makeup of the overall population.
Pat Bradshaw. A Call to Action: Diversity on Canadian Not-For-Profit Boards. Institute for Governance of Private and Public Organizations. April 2009.This study presents the results of a survey of 240 organizations. It finds that while women have made great strides, the proportion of board members from different ethnic background and visible minorities have made much less progress.
how organizations can diversify their leadership business
How organizations can diversify their leadership - Business
  • The Catalyst Series: Career Advancement in Corporate Canada: A Focus on Visible Minorities - Lead Sponsor RBC

Catalyst Canada partnered with the Diversity Institute of Management & Technology Institute at Ryerson University to launch a multi-year study focused on the experiences and perceptions of visible minority executives / managers / professionals and their colleagues employed in large Canadian organizations. Over 17,000 individuals in 43 large publicly-traded and privately-held organizations and professional service firms responded. Five reports were released over a three year period, including “Critical Relationships,” “Workplace Fit and Stereotyping,” and “Diversity & Inclusion Practices.”

Aaron A. Dhir. Towards a Race and Gender-Conscious Conception of the Firm: Canadian Corporate Governance, Law and Diversity. February 10, 2009. CLPE Research Paper No. 01/2009.This report describes the underrepresentation of women and visible minorities on the boards of Canadian Firms, describes the reasons this may be, and suggests some practical ways to overcome board homogeneity. These recommendations include changes to director nomination processes, shareholder proposals and existing corporate governance principles.
  • Westphal, James D. and Laurie P. Milton. 2000. “How Experience and Network Ties Affect the Influence of Demographic Minorities on Corporate Boards.” Administrative Science Quarterly. 45:366-398. (For Purchase Only)The authors examine how the influence of diverse directors on corporate boards is contingent on the prior experience of board members and the larger social structural context in which demographic differences are embedded. The results provide some interesting findings on maximizing the prior experience of minority directors on boards.
Kate Pearson. “Creating a Board Without Borders.” Association Management. Washington: January 2004. Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pg. 87.This article discusses five tips for US-based associations to get the benefits of a diverse global board without risking an international incident.
  • Virginia Galt. “Diversity tips from shop floor up.” The Globe and Mail. Toronto: November 9, 2007, pg. C.1This article highlights examples of human resource management strategies employed by companies which acknowledge and manage workforce diversity from entry level positions.
  • Claire McCarty Kilian, Dawn Hukai, C. Elizabeth McCarty. “Building diversity in the pipeline to corporate leadership.” Journal of Management Development. Wisconsin: 2005. Vol. 24, Iss. 2, pg. 155-168. (For Purchase Only)This paper goes beyond the barriers to the success of women and people of colour in corporate environment and focuses on successful interventions.
Richard A. Bernardi David F. Bean and Kristen M. Weippert. “Minority membership on boards of directors: the case for requiring pictures of boards in annual reports.” Critical Perspectives on Accounting. London: November 2005. Vol. 16, Iss. 8, pg. 1019. (For purchase only.This research study argues for an increased presence of gender and race diversity on board of directors, and suggests that annual reports that include pictures of board members relates to a significant increase in the presence of ethnic minorities and females.
  • Kerry C. Stackpole. “Bringing the Best to the Boardroom.” Association Management. Washington: January 2003. Vol. 55, Iss. 1, pg. 96.This article discusses six ways to take advantage of unique opportunities and accelerate an association’s progress in identifying and selecting high potential new leaders for their boards.
  • Tanya van Biesen and Sharon Rudy. Executive Inclusion: Bringing Diversity to Canada’s Senior Ranks. Spencer Stuart, May 2009.Spencer Stuart spoke to diversity experts and human resources executives to learn more about the barriers to greater diversity in the senior ranks, and the means by which companies can overcome them to bring true inclusion to the executive suite.
how organizations can diversify their leadership not for profit
How organizations can diversify their leadership - Not-for-profit
  • Fox, Mark. September 2007. “Tools for Improving Your Board’s Diversity.” Nonprofit World. 2007, Vol 25; No. 5, 8 - 11. (For purchase only.)This article notes the benefits of a diverse board, and provides a model for a diversity and skills matrix that can be used to evaluate a board’s diversity while avoiding tokenism.
  • Berkshire, Jennifer C. 18, October 2007. “Ideals in Action: How Five Nonprofit Organizations Made Progress on the Road Toward Inclusion.” Chronicle of Philanthropy. p.D-7-D-13. (Not available online.)This article profiles the work that five nonprofits have done to increase diversity within their staff and boards, as well as in the nonprofit community at large.
Preston, Caroline. 18, October 2007. “Grants for Growth (Minorities in Non Profit Groups).” Chronicle of Philanthropy.Foundations are undertaking effort’s to increase diverse leadership in the non-profit world. This article explores the phenomenon and points to techniques and institutions that are attempting to increase their diversity.
  • Lichtenstein, Richard. “Promoting Diversity in Health Management: The University of Michigan Experience.” The Journal of Health Administration Education. Michigan: Summer 2005. 22(3):251-82.The article discusses the importance of diversity in health management training programs; the University of Michigan’s Summer Enrichment program (SEP), a program to increase the number of students of colour who receive graduate training in health management; and to report the results of a survey of SEP alumni.
how organizations can diversify their leadership government
How organizations can diversify their leadership - Government
  • Diversity Matters: Changing the Face of Public BoardsThis report sets out the benefits of board diversity and provides practical ideas for promoting more transparent and inclusive board processes.