Advertising programs
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Advertising Programs. Effects of Advertising Programs. Stages. Specific Effects. Cognitive stage Exposure to message Message recall Awareness of product Knowledge of product attributes and uses

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Effects of advertising programs
Effects of Advertising Programs


Specific Effects

  • Cognitive stage Exposure to message Message recall Awareness of product Knowledge of product attributes and uses

  • Affective stage Willingness to seek more information Interest in product Favourable evaluation of product or brand attributes Intention to try or buy

  • Behavioural stage Product trial Product purchase

Advertising programs 1349812


Paid messages designed to inform or persuade buyers or users about a product, service, belief or action.

Developing advertising programs
Developing Advertising Programs

  • The process of setting advertising objectives

  • Procedures for developing advertising budgets

  • Considerations involved in devising a message and a media plan

  • Approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of a program

Basic elements of an advertising programs
Basic Elements of an Advertising Programs

Marketing Strategy

Advertising Objectives

Tentative Budget

Message Design

Media Schedule




Types of advertising objectives
Types of Advertising Objectives

  • Awareness

  • Reminder to use

  • Changing attitudes about the use of the product form

  • Changing perceptions about the importance of brand attributes

  • Changing beliefs about brands

  • Attitude reinforcement

  • Corporate and product-line image building

  • Obtaining a direct response

The advertising budgeting process
The Advertising Budgeting Process

  • Establish a baseline budget

  • Based on the advertising objectives, estimate the message design and media costs required

  • If time and resources permit, run experiments to obtain a rough estimate of the impact of the proposed program

  • Revise the budget (or objectives) as necessary

Developing a tentative advertising budget
Developing a Tentative Advertising Budget

Prior Year Budget

Percentage of Sales Adjustment

Product Objective

Profitability Analysis

Competitor’s Budgets

Productivity Judgments

Baseline Budget

Advertising Objective

Message Design Cost

Results of Experiments

Changes in Other Programs

Media Cost

Tentative Budget

Developing the media schedule
Developing the Media Schedule

Advertising Objectives

Message Design

Target Audience

Potential Media Vehicles

Frequency and Reach Criteria

Audience Size

Size, Length and Position

Tentative Budget

Duplication Among Vehicles

Cost per Insertion

Media Scheduling Model

Compare Alternative Schedules

Review Budget

Elements of message design
Elements of Message Design

Copy-Claim Alternatives:

  • Claims that describe the physical attributes of the product

  • Claims that describe the functional benefits that can be obtained from the product

  • Claims that characterize the product in terms of the types of people who use it

Elements of message design1
Elements of Message Design

Execution Style:

  • Humour

  • Symbolic Associations

  • Testimonials

  • Product demonstrations

  • “Slice of Life”

  • Case histories

  • Documentation of the product’s attributes

  • Comparative advertising

How to evaluate advertising programs
How to Evaluate Advertising Programs

Specific Advertisements:

  • Recognition Tests

    Estimate the percentage of people claiming to have read a magazine who recognize an ad when it is shown to them.

  • Recall Tests

    Estimate the percentage of people claiming to have read a magazine who can recall an ad and its contents.

  • Opinion Tests

    Potential audience members are asked to rank alternative advertisements as most interesting, most believable, best liked, etc.

  • Theatre Tests

    Theatre audience is asked for brand preferences before and after an ad is shown in context of a TV show.

How to evaluate advertising programs1
How to Evaluate Advertising Programs

Specific Advertising Objectives:

  • Awareness

    Potential; buyers are asked to indicate the brands that come to mind in a product category. A message used in an ad campaign is given, and buyers are asked to identify the brand that was advertised using that message.

  • Attitude

    Potential buyers are asked to rate individual or competing brands on determinant attributes, benefits, other characterizations using rating scales.

How to evaluate advertising programs2
How to Evaluate Advertising Programs

Evaluating Motivational Impact:

  • Intentions to Buy

    Potential buyers areindicate likelihood they will buy a brand (on a scale from “definitely will not” to “definitely will”.

  • Market Test

    Sales changes in different markets are monitored to compare effects of different messages, budget levels, etc.