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Computer Animation Algorithms and Techniques
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  1. Computer AnimationAlgorithms and Techniques Behavioral Animation: Crowds

  2. Crowd Applications • For evaluation • Building evacuation, e.g. virtual fire drill • Architecture evaluation, e.g. signage • For training • Military scenarios, e.g. sniper training • Emergency response, e.g. disaster response • For entertainment: e.g., background crowds • games • films, e.g., Titanic, Saving Private Ryan, Lord of the Ringss

  3. Qualities of crowd Emergent behavior - similar to flocking, flocking system Uniform – sameness of members Quantity & density - average distance between members Viewing distance – aggregate behavior, inspect individuals Function – simple traversal, background activity, main actions Individual processing – amount of computation per member Physics – simulated reaction to environment Intelligence - reasoning capability - agents

  4. Uniformity, granularity • Background noise: • Activity without intention • Statistical behavior: • On average, intentional activity • Individuality: • Believable activity at level of individual

  5. Execution environment Real-time v. Off-line computation simple computations avoid n-squared algorithms size limited

  6. Spatial organization • Cellular decomposition: • Regular 2D grid • Adjacency accessible • Density limited • Cells define obstructions • Continuous space: • Step in any direction • Need to decipher obstructions • Perception needed

  7. Perception Modeling Vision Memory Knowledge of environment

  8. Navigation • Fluid flow: • density fields, potential functions • Particle systems: • Individual navigation • Flocking systems: • individual perception, navigation Rule-based Cognitive modeling Cellular automata

  9. Panic & Congestion handling Personal space Packing people during evacuation Stairwell traversal Exit awareness

  10. Motion & Navigation Path planning Roadmaps Passing on pathways Potential fields Forming & maintaining subgroups

  11. Structure in crowds Homogenous – no individuality • Subgroups • Group by belief systems A collection of Individuals – personality modeling

  12. Penn Station See animations

  13. Other topics Heterogeneous – pedestrians and cars Data driven crowds – image processing Comparison to real-world situations

  14. Massive http://www.massivesoftware.com/ Commercial de facto standard See animation