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  1. PENGELOLAAN BIODIVERSITAS AGROEKOSISTEM Mk. ManajemenAgroekosistem Disajikan : soemarnojurstanahfpub des 2013

  2. Kawasanlereng G. Mahawu EkosistemHutan AgroekosistemTalun Agroekosistemsawah AgroekosistemTegalan

  3. Diunduhdari: 8/12/2012 BIODIVERSITAS .

  4. Biodiversity, Agriculture & Ecosystems • WhatisBiodiversity • Agrobiodiversity • Biodiversity and Agriculture in the landscape • extensification and intensification • Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services • Agriculture and Ecosystem Services • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  5. DEFINITIONS OF BIODIVERSITY ‘The variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of which they are part, including the diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.’ • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  6. Reed Noss, "Indicators for Monitoring Biodiversity: A Hierarchial Approach", Conservation Biology 4(4):355-364. 1990. • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  7. Agrobiodiversity and Sugarcane • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  8. Aneka spesiestumbuhanbawahdanpenutuptanahdijumpaidikebunkakao. Sumber: • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  9. Agrobiodiversity and Cacao • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  10. Agrobiodiversity and staple crops in PNG (potato, taro, yams) • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  11. MangroveID - Delta Mahakam, Pertambakanudangdikawasan Delta Mahakam umumnyadibangunsecaraekstensiftradisionaldenganluaslahanpetakantambakdiatas 5 ha. Hal initidaksajadapatmerusakhutan mangrove dalam areal yang sangatluas, akantetapijugadalamkondisiterbukasepertiituakanberdampakterhadapperubahankondisilingkunganmisalnyaperubahankualitas air tambak. • Diunduhdari: ....... 12/12/2012 • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  12. Lahanjagung Lahantomat Lahantebu • Diunduhdari: biodiversitasagroekosistemlahansawahdidimusimkemarau, smnojuli 2011

  13. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment:Focus on Ecosystem Services The benefits people obtain from ecosystems • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  14. Focus: Consequences of Ecosystem Change for Human Well-being • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  15. Human Well-being Indirect Drivers Ecosystem Services Direct Drivers MA Conceptual Framework • Human Well-being and • Poverty Reduction • Basic material for a good life • Health • Good Social Relations • Security • Freedom of choice and action • Indirect Drivers of Change • Demographic • Economic (globalization, trade, market and policy framework) • Sociopolitical (governance and institutional framework) • Science and Technology • Cultural and Religious • Direct Drivers of Change • Changes in land use • Species introduction or removal • Technology adaptation and use • External inputs (e.g., irrigation) • Resource consumption • Climate change • Natural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes) • Diunduhdari:  ....... 8/12/2012

  16. Sustainable Use of Agricultural Biodiversity: An essential aspect of natural resources management in agricultural ecosystems • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  17. What is agricultural biodiversity? It includes all components of biological diversity of relevance to food and agriculture: the variety and variability of plants, animals and micro-organisms at genetic, species and ecosystem level which are necessary to sustain key functions in the agro-ecosystem, its structures and processes. Local knowledge and cultural diversity can be considered an essential part of agrobiodiversity as it is the human activity of agriculture which conserves this biodiversity. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  18. Importance (value) of biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems In agricultural systems biodiversity is important • for the production of food, fibre, fuel, fodder...(goods) • to conserve the ecological foundations to sustain life (life support function) • to allow adaptation to changing situations • and to sustain rural peoples’ livelihoods (sustainable agriculture – food security, income, employment,...) Specificity: it has been developed through human intervention over generations and it requires human management to sustain it. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  19. Agricultural Biodiversity is complex Human Management practices and decisions GENETIC and SPECIES DIVERSITY wild and domesticated CULTURAL DIVERSITY Crop based systems: food/fibre crops, pasture, trees (planned + harvested spp.) Mixed systemsand associated biodiversity: soil organisms, pollinators, predators Livestock based systems: pasture, rangelands, cattle, small ruminants, poultry... Case studies and experiences to be shared among countries and farming systems ECOSYSTEMS DIVERSITY varied production systems habitats and landscapes • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  20. Need to address all components of agrobiodiversity • Habitat diversity (mosaic of land uses varies with soil and terrain, hedges, borders, trees in the landscape; farm type) • Inter-species diversity (plant, animal and microbial) • Inter-species diversity (very important for agrobiodiversity) genetic resources, unique traits –resistance to drought, cold, disease, etc, rooting, aspect, taste, storage, etc. • Harvested species and Associated species (pollinators, beneficial/harmful predators, soil organisms – health/ disease,…) • as well as Cultural diversity (type of farmer and farm; regulations; common property resources/ownership) • and to understand implication of agrobiodiversity on ecosystem functions/processes and the servicesprovided (see adapted Table by J. Paruel, Environmental controls and effect of land use on ecosystem functioning in temperate Argentina) • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  21. MANAGING AGRO-ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY COMPONENTS Predators Non-crop Soil Soil Pollinators Earthworms Herbivores and Parasites Vegetation Mesofauna Microfauna AGROECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY FUNCTIONS Nutrient Population Biomass Competition Pollination Soil structure Decomposition cycling regulation consumption Allelopathy Genetic Nutrient Predation Disease Biological Nutrient Sources of natural introgression cycling Nutrient cycling suppression control cycling enemies Crop wild relatives ENHANCEMENTS Intercropping Rotations No-Tillage Green manures Windbreaks Agroforestry Cover crops Composting OM inputs From Altieri, M.A. Biodiversity and pest management Agro-ecosystems, Haworth Press, New York, 1994) • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  22. Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  23. Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  24. Understanding Human Pressures on and threats to agricultural biodiversity Increasing pressure on species and their environments: • Population growth and poverty (increasing demand) • Overexploitation, mismanagement • Expansion into wetlands and fragile areas • Intensification and Specialisation of agriculture – market forces • Pollution • Urbanisation, changing consumption patterns, globalisation Threats and risks • loss of plant and animal species • loss of plant varieties and animal races/breeds (loss of unique traits) • also loss of essential natural processes • pollination by insects, birds, bats etc. • regeneration of soils by micro-organisms • also reduced resilience. Need toincrease resilience of agriculture and human capacity to adapt (to harsh periods, drought, climate change, pests, diseases) by maintaining a wide array of life forms with unique traits (e.g. trees that survive drought or cattle that reproduce in harsh conditions). • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  25. Wide range of case studies illustrate Sustainable Use of agrobiodiversity • Integrated agro-ecological approaches: IPM, soil biological management • Community-based adaptive management– animal and plant genetic resources, diverse farming systems • Local knowledge systems • multiple uses of species (diet, nutrition, medicines; gender differentiated knowledge of agrobiodiversity • community perspectives/strategies in managing crop and livestock and associated biodiversity; coping strategies for HIV/AIDS, climate change) • Ecosystem approach: address all components, systems functioning and services and human management (cf. EA principles) • Strengthening viability of farm-livelihood systems with under-utilized and under-valued biodiversity (opportunities; options) • grasslands (grazing species preference, productivity; deep roots-below ground biomass) • mountains (adaptation to altitude, cold; disease resilience, etc.) • marketing (diverse products, niche markets, organic agriculture, etc. • recognition of positive externalities (valuing ecological services provided by biodiversity associated with agricultural systems) • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  26. Need to use common Agricultural Definitions Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, environmentally sustainable, economically viable, socially just and culturally appropriate … is based on a holistic scientific approach and productive over the long term. Farm System : the farm household, its resources, and the resource flows and interactions at this individual farm level Farming System: a population of individual farm systems that have broadly similar resource bases, enterprise patterns, household livelihoods and constraints Sustainable agricultural systems provide a range of goods (food, fuel, fibre, materials, etc.) and services (also considered as positive externalities) Need to select indicators for monitoring sustainability: • soil (sustained health + productivity, prevent soil erosion, minimise off-site impacts, ... ); • water (water retention, maintain water regime, flood protection, etc); • vegetation (protective land cover, structure, biomass, C sequestration) • biodiversity (resilience, adaptability, opportunities) conservation of wildlife and wild species; agricultural biodiversity: genetic resources inter- and intra- species, farmed and associated species, ecosystem functions, • air quality (minimise greenhouse gas emissions) • rural amenities (e.g. landscape, tourism). • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  27. Need to build on ongoing global agro-biodiversity fora/intergovernmental processes • CBD Programme of Work on Agricultural Biodiversity: 4 components on Assessment, Adaptive Management, Capacity Building, Mainstreaming) • International Initiative for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Soil Biodiversity • International Initiative for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Pollinators • International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and AgricultureFAO IT-PGRFA • International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) Sec. hosted by FAO • FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture CGRFA • FAO Committee on Agriculture COAG These have resulted in: • Assessment, Monitoring and Priority Actions: GPA-PGR, SOWAGR, Good Practices: SLM, Conservation agriculture, IPM, .... • Guidelines: PGR, AGR, Pollinators, soil biodiversity, ecosystem approach, farmer rights, • Panel of Experts… etc. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  28. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic resources for Food and Agriculture (IT) • This legally binding instrument is crucial for sustainable agriculture. It provides a framework for national, regional and international efforts to conserve and sustainably use plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - and for sharing the benefits equitably, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity. • IT-PGRFA was adopted by the 31st session of the FAO Conference (Resolution 3/2001) • It entered into force on 29 June 2004. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  29. Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of PGRFA Priority Activity AreasIn Situ Conservation and DevelopmentActivity 1. Surveying and Inventorying of PGRFA 2. Supporting On-farm Management and Improvement of PGRFA 3. Assisting Farmers in Disaster Situations to Restore Agricultural Systems 4. Promoting in situ Conservation of Wild Crop Relatives and Wild Plants for Food production (Sustainable) Utilization of Plant Genetic ResourcesActivity Activity 9 Expanding characterization, evaluation and core collection 10 Increasing genetic enhancement and base broadening 11 Promoting sustainable agriculture 12Promiting under-utilized crops and species 13 Supporting seed production and distribution 14. developing new markets for local varieties an diversity rich products also Ex situ conservation..... Capacity building and Institutions..... • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  30. Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources • FAO is coordinating its development to guide international action for the sustainable use, development and conservation of domestic animal diversity • supported by the Inter-governmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources • An essential element is the first State of the world's animal genetic resources - a comprehensive overview of farm animal biodiversity; country-driven process (as agreed by CGRFA-8 in 1999). • First stage of reporting completed >170 Country Reports, reports by International organizations on relevant activities see DAD-IS. • CGRFA-10 decided that the 1st Report, including the Report on Strategic Priorities for Action should be finalized at the First International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources in 2007, hosted by the Government of Switzerland in 2007 in Interlaken • Draft Report on Strategic Priorities for Action was reviewed by electronic Regional Consultations. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  31. Domestic Animal Genetic Resources at Risk • Exotic genetic resources not sustainable • Indiscriminate crossbreeding • Genetic resources for future needs Desirable commitments by governments • Include stakeholders in decision-making • Identification of sources of funding • Support breeder associations • Strengthen extension services • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  32. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) • The CGRFA deals with policy, sectorial and cross sectorial matters related to the conservation and utilization of genetic resources for food and agriculture. • It develops and monitors • the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources and • the Global System for Plant Genetic Resources – for food and agriculture. • It has been addressing genetic resources in a stepwise manner (plant genetic resources  animal …..) but has agreed on the need for an ecosystem approach • Hence the side event on its 20th anniversary (CGRFA 10): Mainstreaming agricultural biodiversity for food security (8-10 November 2004) and resulting in the publication on Biodiversity and the Ecosystem Approach (See website) • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  33. Options for technical support to countries in enhancing sustainable use of AGBIO • Enhance biodiversity through • Sustainable agriculture • Sustainable pastoralism • Sustainable intensification (enhance productivity and function) • livelihoods’ diversification • Managing seed systems to promote the sustainable utilization of crop genetic resources • Economic analysis: marketing, addressing and valuing the multiple roles of agriculture (See and externalities • Integrate into poverty alleviation strategies • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  34. Case studies of Sustainable agriculture - enhancing agricultural biodiversity • Increased use of mixtures(intercropping, multistorey, agro-forestry, crop-livestock systems) • Access to a wide range of good quality genetic material(plant and animal) • Promote production of local germplasm and commercialization • Promote decentralized and participatory breeding • Improve use of genetic diversity as part of IPM strategies • Monitor and identify underutilized species, support needs • Develop sustainable management practices and post-harvest and marketing methods; • Stimulate demand for diverse local products (niche markets, labelling, registration) • Review and promote policies for development and use e.g. biodiversity conseravtion and coping with climate change • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  35. Soil Biodiversity From Micro-organisms e.g. bacteria + fungi Micro & meso-fauna protozoa, nematodes to acari & springtails ...Roots in the soil and their interactions with species above & below ground Macro-fauna e.g. ants, termites, earthworms • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  36. Managing Pollinators KelompokTani "LaduniMutiara Lestari" menyediakanmaduasli, denganharga yang kompetitifdankualitasmaduterbaik Management practice: In Himachal Pradesh in Northwest Indian Himalayas farmers are using colonies of honeybees – Apisceranaand Apismellifera for pollination of apple crop. • An organized system of hiring and renting bee colonies for pollination exists. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012 • Diunduhdari: ....... 8/12/2012

  37. Impact of Apiscerana pollination on fruit productivity Crop Increase in fruit set (%) Increase in fruit weight (%) Increase in fruit size (length/ diameter) (%) Reference Apple 10 33 15/10 Dulta and Verma, 1987 Peach 22 44 29/23 Partap et al, 2000 Plum 13 39 11/14 Partap et al, 2000 Citrus 24 35 9/35 Partap, 2000a Strawberry 112 48 Misshapen fruit decreased by 50% Partap 2000b Also reduced premature fruit drop in apple, peach, plum, and citrus. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  38. Minimizing impacts of farming practices on wild biodiversity- making best use of resources • Gramminae Conservation through Sustainable management and Use • Practices are part of the wider agricultural system. This takes two main forms: • on-farm • -strips of uncultivated land, ‘hedgerows’ of grass and bush, fallow land, fenced graminae-rich plots… • off-farm • - management of community grazing lands, seasonal wetlands, rocky outcrops and hillsides, sacred sites… • - controlled burning • traditional uses and skills Thatching, Busia District Grass-strips between crops-Machakos District Kenya • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  39. Case studies/Opportunities for Sustainable intensification Sustainable management practices:controlled burning and grazing, woodlots for energy and timber, field borders/hedges, crop-livestock-forestry interactions are key to maintaining diverse habitats and landscapes that support biodiversity Human management of ecosystems may increase species diversity • semiarid savannas: managed pasture, control invasive forest and shrub species, harvesting, gathering and planting • diversified agro-silvo-pastoral systems • multi-layer farming systems: trees, perennials- banana, coffee, annuals) Planned settlements/roads: reduces lands with potential, avoid biodiversity hotspots, environmentally-friendly (green belt, trees, etc.) Protected areas, buffer zones, specific action to safeguard those groups and species that are more sensitive to human use than others, to allow hunting and gathering and in situ conservation of landraces/farmers varieties/breeds Land use planningby communities and sub-catchments to promote biodiversity. Vary land use type with soil type, terrain, microclimate, access to water. Patchwork of settlements, cropland, pasture, forestland, and protected areas. Regulations : stocking density, seasonality, quotas, user groups, etc. • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  40. Sustainability - adaptation to change and enhancing systems’ resilience • Supporting the ability of farmers to remain agile in responding to new challenges, by adapting their production system • Resilience or adaptive capacity are properties of the actors and the system in which they function • Resilience may indicate a return to the status quo. Agility/adaptability refers to continuously moving targets/changing situations • Need to sustain use and sustain adaptive capacity to increase probability of meeting future needs • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  41. FAO: Roles of Agriculture Project Premise 1: Agriculture provides multiple non-commodity outputs that are not valued by market transactions  may be under-produced relative to what society desires. Premise 2: As income rises (socio-economic/agricultural development), the economic importance of the commodity outputs of agriculture decreases in relative terms, and willingness to pay for its other roles increases Policy challenge to Address Externalities (costs or benefits not valued in the market and not adequately taken into account by actor/decision maker) to Safeguard Common Resources/Public Goods(rules of access and use; mechanisms for collective action to prevent degradation, under / over use) to Integrate natural resources management/ecosystem approach (resources, and their products, are interlinked, management /policy measures for one resource/sector affects the others to Create resource/ecosystem friendly markets that generate growth and promote sustainable use/management of resources and ecosystems. Studies conducted in Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, South Africa, Morocco • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  42. Roles of Agriculture SOCIAL VIABILITY Equity; Stability FOOD SECURITY POVERTY ALLEVIATION CULTURAL ROLE Gender; Heritage; IK ENVIRONMENTAL EXTERNALITIES • Global: • Social stability • Poverty Alleviation Regional/National: • Rural-urban migration (social implications) • Welfare systems substitute • Social capital formation • Biodiversity: diverse livelihoods • Local: • Social stability of rural community • Rural employment • Family values, gender impact. • Bodiversity-coping strategies; risk mgmt • Global: • Economic Growth • Poverty alleviation • World Food Security • Regional/National: • Access to food • National security • Food safety • support in times of crises (remittances, migration, fiscal support, food aid) • Local: • Local / household food security • Biodiversity: nutrition; pest + disease control, options • Sustainability • Employment • Income  services • Global: • Cultural Diversity • Indigenous Knowledge • Regional/ National: • Cultural heritage • Cultural identity • Perception of roles of agriculture • Local: • Landscape, recreation, tourism • Indigenous knowledge (disaster prevention, biodiversity, medicinal applications) • Traditional technology. • Global: • Ecosystem resilience • Climate change mitigation (C, land cover) • Biodiversity • Regional/National: • Ecosystem resilience • Watershed mgmt (prevent soil erosion & off-site impacts) • Water (stable regime;flood prevention) • Biodiversity • plant + animal genetic resources; services • wild spp.+wildlife conservation • Air quality (reduce GHG) Local: • Ecosystem resilience • Biodiversity • farmed spp., associated spp., ecosystem functions • NRM- soil+ water conservation • Pollution control • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  43. Targeting Communities livelihoods and nutrition through local agrobiodiversity • Market opportunities • Premium price for local products • Increased productivity of landraces (improved seed quality; crop rotations; water harvesting • Add-value products (fruit and milk processing) • Production of herbs, medicinal plants, honey (bee keeping) • Handicrafts and Ecotourism • Nutrition /dietary diversity and opportunities • Dietary energy supply can be satisfied without diversity but micro-nutrient supply cannot (e.g. essential fatty acids; amino acids) • Wild and domesticated species and intra-species diversity play key roles in global food security • Different species/varieties have very different nutrient contents • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  44. Understanding impacts/implications of HIV/AIDS on agro-biodiversity HIV/AIDS impact on PGR? Less labour Loss of knowledge Reduction in land cultivated Less labour intensive crops Reduction in crop range and variety Loss of genetic diversity • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  45. Catchments: strengthen relation between ‘upland land users (as providers’ of ES) and lowland land + water users (beneficiaries) • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  46. Mainstreaming biodiversity for sustainable agriculture and food security Programmes, Institutions and Capacity Building • Multi-sectoral approaches: agricultural, environmental, land, water, community development, planning and finance (coordination; committees). • Mainstreaming in national programmes (poverty alleviation, gender) • Land use planning at community and watershed levels (landscape; habitat dimensions) • Supporting on farm management • Networks : e.g. plant genetic resources, research + development • Participatory assessment, monitoring and early warning systems • Information systems (threatened resources, threats etc) • Training and education: curricula, adult education, extension, gender • Raising awareness of importance (value) - public, private sector decision makers (local media, schools, etc) • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012

  47. Agriculture-environment collaboration – identify synergy, mutual benefits BiodiversityAgriculture Productivity Adaptation Maintenance of ecosystem functions Agriculture Biodiversity Delivery of ecosystem services Incentives Ecological knowledge • Diunduhdari: - ....... 8/12/2012