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Essential Readings on Reading Motivation. Mount St. Mary’s Summer Institute2011 Barbara Marinak Jackie Malloy. Coming to Terms. Motivation Likelihood of choosing to engage Willingness to continue engagement. Engagement Cognitive Affective Behavioral. What’s it look like?.

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essential readings on reading motivation

Essential Readings on Reading Motivation

Mount St. Mary’s

Summer Institute2011

Barbara Marinak

Jackie Malloy

coming to terms
Coming to Terms

Motivation

Likelihood of choosing to engage

Willingness to continue engagement

Engagement

Cognitive

Affective

Behavioral

what s it look like
What’s it look like?

THE PIANO STAIRS PROJECT…

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw&feature=player_embedded#!

does motivation matter
Does motivation matter?

How can you tell if a student is motivated to learn?

How can you tell if a student is engaged in an activity?

research
Research

Numerous studies conducted in the past two decades confirm a correlation between children’s reading proficiency and their motivation.

r esearch
Research

McKenna et al. (1995) found an erosion in academic and recreational attitude for readers beginning in third grade that continued for the duration of the elementary and middle school years.

reasons to participate
Reasons to participate
  • Mastery orientation
    • Goal orientation that “focuses on learning as something valuable and meaningful in itself” (Husman, Brem, Duggan, 2005)
    • Learning is ongoing
    • Compare with self, not others
    • All outcomes are opportunities
reasons to participate1
Reasons to participate

Performance orientation

  • More outside influences (parents, grades)
  • Focus is on comparing well with others
  • Avoid risks and challenges that might make them look bad
  • Do the work, get the reward
  • As extrinsic increases, intrinsic decreases
performance orientation it s complicated
Performance orientation (it’s complicated...)

Performance-approach

  • Seek challenges so they can be the best
  • Driven, but not for themselves
  • May benefit from their experiences, though.
  • First hand in the air - read the hardest books, take the hardest test, write the longest paper.
performance orientation it s complicated1
Performance orientation (it’s complicated...)

Performance avoidance -concerned with not failing - run from challenges - self-sabotage behaviors and excuses.

  • Want to do well enough not to look incompetent
  • May look like they don’t care, but may be afraid of looking stupid
  • Even if working hard, may try to make it look like they’re not
reasons students participate
Reasons students participate
  • For the most part, students have mixed goals
  • Orientations are often domain specific:

“I like math but hate English” (esp. after 3rd or 4th grade)

teacher s influence
Teacher’s Influence

Nolen (2003)

  • High School students
    • Lower district science test scores if students felt teachers were interested in grades and scores
    • Higher district science test scores when students felt teachers were interested in them learning the material
result
Result?

Most in smart group chose easy puzzles

90% of Effort group chose harder puzzles

results
Results?

Smart group: Looked at exams of kids who did worse

Effort group: Looked at exams of students who did better

so what s it all mean basil
So what’s it all mean, Basil?

Performance oriented students are less likely than mastery oriented students to embrace challenge or to continue an interest in a topic once the instruction has concluded, as these situations threaten their high ability status or feelings of success.

so what s it all mean basil1
So what’s it all mean, Basil?

Students who express a mastery orientation are (fairly) free from worry about comparisons with others and will continue to explore topics, even if they become challenging, in order to master the task.

so what s it all mean basil2
So what’s it all mean, Basil?

Students who are mastery oriented are also more likely to engage in the use of strategiesand deep processingto achieve their learning goals.

the bottom line is
The bottom line is…

What we value

How we assess

What we say

Matters!

effective praise
Effective Praise

The GI JOES

  • Genuine - not canned
  • Immediate - tie to the event
  • Justified - personal goal
  • Out loud - and in person
  • Effort - process not product
  • Specific - important feedback
you ll know it when you get there
You’ll know it when you get there…

Students…

  • approach tasks with curiosity and eagerness
  • persist in reading – even when it is challenging
  • Find a way to share what they know
so the motivated classroom
So… The Motivated Classroom
  • Values Curiosity
  • Presents tasks to be Eager about
  • Values Persistence by giving time and support
the motivated classroom
The Motivated Classroom
  • Is Risk Free
  • Presents opportunities for mastery
  • Finds ways for everyone to have something of value to offer
research findings
Research Findings
  • Research (Guthrie & Humenick, 2004; Margolis & McCabe, 2004; 2006) suggests that reading intervention must address both the ability to read and the motivation to read (skill and will).
  • Therefore, several student needs must be considered as reading interventions are planned and delivered.
classroom implications
Classroom Implications
  • Choice
  • Challenge
  • Collaboration
  • Authentic and relevant tasks
choice collaboration challenge and authenticity
Choice, Collaboration, Challenge, and Authenticity
  • Balanced Collections
  • Classroom and School Library
  • Book Clubs
  • Teacher Read Alouds
  • Texts for Instruction
choice collaboration challenge and authenticity1
Choice, Collaboration, Challenge, and Authenticity

“Experts Teaching”

  • Modified Jigsaw
  • Choice of group
  • Collaboration to learn challenging content
  • Choice of presentation mode
  • Authentic negotiation regarding presentation of content
text impression1
Text Impression

Antarctic

African

text impression2
Text Impression

Antarctic

African

one

text impression3
Text Impression

Antarctic

African

one

rookery

text impression4
Text Impression

Antarctic

African

one

rookery

herd

text impression5
Text Impression
  • Group on land is a waddle or colony
  • Nesting group is a rookery
  • A group of babies is a crèche
  • A group in the water is a raft
text impression6
Text Impression

Antarctic

African

one

rookery

herd

kindergarten

vocabulary anticipation
Vocabulary Anticipation
  • We will continue with Wild Babies, by reading about alligators and frogs. What words do you think you will read in the text about these two young animals?
  • If not anticipated, add: *************
i search
I-Search
  • Choice
  • Collaboration
  • Challenge
response heuristic
Response Heuristic
  • Choice
  • Collaboration
  • Challenge
response heuristic1
Response Heuristic

The Response Heuristic asks students to react to the following three-part format:

  • Text perceptions
  • Reactions to the text
  • Associations with the text
response heuristic2
Response Heuristic

Text Perception: is a summary statement about important information from the text.

On Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939 Marian

Anderson sang to a crowd of 75,000 people on

the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. She sang at

the Lincoln Memorial because the DAR had a

“whites only” rule at Constitution Hall.

slide48

Reactions to Text: are evaluative statements that ask students to express their opinion about the text.

I was outraged when I read this book. I had no idea that the Daughters of the American Revolution prohibited this great singer from performing at Constitution Hall.

slide49

Associations with the text: are higher level evaluations that require students to associate information with their own prior knowledge or associate current reading with past readings.

It is now clear why Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Amazing that Dr. King’s speech didn't happen until August 28,1963!

slide50

On Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939 Marian Anderson sang to a crowd of 75,000 people on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. She sang at the Lincoln Memorial because the DAR had a “whites only” rule at Constitution Hall. I was outraged when I read this book. I had no idea that that the Daughters of the American Revolution prohibited this great singer from performing at Constitution Hall. It is now clear why Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his “I Have A Dream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Amazing that Dr. King’s speech didn't happen until August 28, 1963!

slide51
“…when

they are

intrinsically

motivated, they

will become

courageous!”

Yong Zhao

authenticity and relevance
Authenticity and Relevance

Authentic reading, writing and discussion experiences are like those encountered in the day-to-day lives of people, as opposed to school-like activities such as completing worksheets or answering teacher-posed questions.

authenticity and relevance1
Authenticity and Relevance
  • Reading: Adults don’t make dioramas
  • Writing: You’re never going to be a leprechaun
  • Brophy: if you can’t think of a real world application, then why do we have to teach it?
popular pink food for thought
Popular Pink – food for thought…

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc