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Adaptation • Evaluation • Curriculum • Syllabus • Grading • Textbooks • Recycling Work in groups of 4 and discuss how you understand these terms. (5 minutes)
TOPIC 1 TEXTBOOK EVALUATION, USE AND ADAPTATION
Objectives • What is the role of textbooks in a language program? • Why do teachers need to evaluate and adapt textbooks? • How do teachers evaluate textbooks? • How do teachers adapt textbooks?
All the materials in a course book package that we use in the classroom to present and practise language, and to develop learners’ language skills. • Textbook • Course book • School book Spratt, M. et al (2006). The Teaching Knowledge Test Course. Cambridge: CUP.
Teacher’s book + Audio/ Video recordings + Workbook/ Activity book + Mini dictionary + extra materials on a website, etc. All the materials in a course book package that we use in the classroom to present and practise language, and to develop learners’ language skills. • Textbook • Course book • School book Spratt, M. et al (2006). The Teaching Knowledge Test Course. Cambridge: CUP.
I. Role of textbook in a language program? Work in pairs/ groups with your friends. • What do you see as the benefits and limitations of using a textbook? • Give examples to illustrate your points (10 minutes)
Benefits of using textbooks • They provide structure and syllabus for a program • They help standardize instruction • They maintain quality • They provide a variety of learning resources
Benefits of using textbooks • They are efficient • They can provide effective language model and input • They can train teachers • They are visually appealing
Hutchinson and Torres (1994): "The textbook is an almost universal element of [English language] teaching. Millions of copies are sold every year, and numerous aid projects have been set up to produce them in [various] countries…No teaching-learning situation, it seems, is complete until it has its relevant textbook. " (p.315).
Negative effects of using textbooks • They may contain inauthentic language • They may distort content • They may not reflect students’ needs • They can deskill teachers • They are expensive
II. Why do teachers need to evaluate and adapt textbooks? • The rapid ELT development more and more textbooks have made their way to the market. Choosing the right textbook is becoming more and more important at all levels of ELT in schools.
Although most classroom teachers will not be involved in the production of textbooks, all teachers have the responsibility for textbook evaluation, selection and adaptation. Select the textbook/ material Need analysis ( Questionnaires/ Interviews/ Diagnostic tests) Class profile Learner’s level, language needs and interests, etc.
III.Evaluating textbooks WHAT TO CHECK IN A TEXTBOOK? • Aims and Curriculum Fit • Design and organization • Language content • Skills • Topic • Methodology • Teacher’s books • Practical consideration NO YES REPLACE IT ADAPT IT USE IT
III.Evaluating textbooks WHAT TO CHECK IN A UNIT? • Aims • Content and Balance • Topics • Methodology • Activities • Texts • Support USE IT • Aims • Topics • Texts • Visuals, Guidelines, Explanations • Exercises, Activities, Tasks, Games, Quizzes ADAPT IT
IV. Adapting textbooks 1.omission: the teacher leaves out things deemed inappropriate, offensive, unproductive, etc., for the particular group. 2.addition: where there seems to be inadequate coverage, teachers may decide to add to textbooks, either in the form of texts or exercise material.
3.reduction: where the teacher shortens an activity to give it less weight or emphasis. 4.extension: where an activity is lengthened in order to give it an additional dimension. (For example, a vocabulary activity is extended to draw attention to some syntactic patterning.)
5.rewriting/modification: teacher may occasionally decide to rewrite material, especially exercise material, to make it more appropriate, more “communicative”, more demanding, more accessible to their students, etc. 6.replacement: text or exercise material which is considered inadequate, for whatever reason, may be replaced by more suitable material. This is often culled from other resource materials.
7.re-ordering: teachers may decide that the order in which the textbooks are presented is not suitable for their students. They can then decide to plot a different course through the textbooks from the one the writer has laid down. 8.branching: teachers may decide to add options to the existing activity or to suggest alternative pathways through the activities. (For example, an experiential route or an analytical route.)
IV. Adapting textbooks Task 3 (p. 11) Examine New English 10 standard textbook, Unit 1: A day in life of …, Reading, and compare it with the skeleton lesson plan. Find and mark on the lesson plan the things that have been added, changed, replaced or removed. Pair work. 10 minutes.
III.Adapting textbooks • Work in groups • Choose a unit from English 10 course book. • In what way (s) will you need to adapt the material? (10 minutes)
REFLECTION Think about these comments from teachers. Which do you agree with and why? • I plan my lessons to respond to my learners’ needs, so I never use a course book. • I always plan my lessons following the suggestions in the teachers’ book. • I use all the materials in every unit in the order given in the book. • I use a course book, but I change most of it so that learners don’t get bored. • I’ve got a good course book and I haven’t got time to adapt any of it.
V. Conclusion 1- Firstly, teachers need to have the authority to evaluate, select and adapt textbooks. • In many cases, teachers are simply told to use a certain textbook. • In worse circumstances, teachers are told how to use a book. • Some teachers are even criticized for intentionally leaving out activities that they do not consider appropriate or necessary.
2- Secondly, teachers have to have the initiative to evaluate, select and adapt textbooks. • Very often, with a heavy workload, teachers simply do not have the time or energy to do anything beyond lesson planning and marking students’ homework. • Without explicit encouragement from authorities, many teachers do not make an effort to evaluate and adapt textbooks.
3- Thirdly, teachers need to know how to evaluate, select and adapt textbooks.
References • Hutchinson, T. & Torres, E. (1994). 'The Textbook as Agent of Change'. ELT Journal. 48/4. • Spratt, M. et al (2006). The Teaching Knowledge Test Course. Cambridge: CUP. • To,T.T.H. & Nguyen, T.T.M (2008). ELT Methodology III- Language Assessment and ELT Material Development.
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